Of the toads that had parotoid glands expressed, microscopic examination revealed the majority of the vesicles in the glands had emptied significantly with little to no contents remaining.
2006a, b) were utilized because of their abundance, large size, and prominent parotoid glands.
Parotoid glands were expressed in live animals using a transcutaneous electrical stimulation device following Grant & Land (2002).
Following gland expression, the animals were euthanized by standard approved methods (American Veterinary Medical Association 2001; Simmons 2002) at various time stages (control, 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 2 d, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d) and the entire parotoid gland structure was formalized in situ with a 10% solution (3.
The parotoid glands are clearly great swallowed and sub triangular, the rest of the cranial crests well developed; a tarsal fold is present (Savage, 2002).
This species is clearly differentiated by possessing parotoid glands, dorsum with numerous warts and a conspicuous outer tarsal tubercle.
A moderate to large sized toad having large parotoids glands and a distinct inner tarsal fold.