Emirates presi- dent Timothy Clark revealed: "As I have previously indicated, the viability of our operations in Luanda is being severely impacted by limitations on the re- patriation
of out-sale proceeds being accumulated in Angola on a daily basis.
This "danger" was particularly evident among the political parties during the patriation
process in 1980-81.
Nadia Verrelli's opening chapter tells us how the formula evolved over a 115-year journey to the final set of rules that were adopted in the Constitution Act, 1982, the amendment to the Constitution that achieved patriation
battle between Prime Minister Trudeau and the provinces finally culminated with a deal in 1981.
The Supreme Court, speaking in obiter without much consideration of the issue, (120) declared in the Patriation
Reference that neither the Queen nor her representatives can "of their own motion refuse to assent to any such bill on any ground.
As the constitutional talks unfolded, the souring of negotiations between the provinces and Canada and the spectre of unilateral patriation
created a window of opportunity for Metis entrepreneurs to build support for their cause on both sides of the debate.
Think of the extension of unemployment insurance to fishers in the 1950s, the creation of the Atlantic Adjustment Grants (which were the foundation of the later equalization program) in the 1960s, the coalition to stop Pierre Trudeau's unilateral constitutional patriation
in 1980-81, and the ongoing development of the Muskrat Falls hydro site by accessing markets other than Quebec.
32) This justified the conclusion that patriation
afforded the essential features of the Supreme Court constitutional protection and guaranteed that any changes to those features would be subject to the amending procedures.
Although some provincial premiers at the time of patriation
tried to avoid this outcome by insisting that the word existing be inserted before "aboriginal and treaty rights," this modification has had little or no effect.
Without section 33, it can be forcefully and validly argued that there might have been no Charter at all and even no patriation
of the constitution.
The loss of the referendum in 1980, and the patriation
of the Constitution with an entrenched Canadian Charter despite Quebec's strenuous objections, changed the attitudes of Quebec governments toward the rules of the Canadian constitutional game.
Lester Pearson's replacement of the Red Ensign with the Canadian flag or Pierre Trudeau's patriation
of the British North America Act were the high points of this Liberal story.