a.1.(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the pharynx and the branchiæ; - applied especially to the dorsal elements in the branchial arches of fishes. See Pharyngeal.
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The pharyngobranchial region, the part of the animal posterior to the mouth and ventral to the orbits and pectoral fins, is generally not well preserved, and the number of branchial pouches and branchial openings is uncertain.
Unlike the predominantly longitudinal orientation of the scales on most of the body, at least some of the scales covering the pharyngobranchial region have an oblique long axis, being aligned anterodorsally to posteroventrally (Figs 5A, B, 6D) in a manner that suggests that the branchial pouches or row of branchial openings was also oblique, as it is in anaspids (Blom et al.
Owiyeye and Anablepsoides share two derived conditions (frontal squamation S-patterned and a transverse stripe through chin), but it is parsimoniously considered to a member of a clade also including Laimosemion and Melanorivulus, mainly diagnosed by the absence of second pharyngobranchial teeth.
38] Number and arrangement of second pharyngobranchial teeth (Costa 2004a) (CI: 0.
A phylogenetic analysis for the Sciaenidae by Sasaki (1989) that used morphological, osteological, and myological evidence concluded that Seriphus is broadly separated from Cynoscion by possessing the following characters: an enlarged and anteriorly located toothplate on the pharyngobranchial 2, the flexor ventralis externus fades into the flexor ventralis, the basiphenoid is separate from the parasphenoid ventrally, a dentary foramen is present, there is a secondary reversal from an enlarged and anteriorly located tooth plate on pharyngobranchial 2, the posterior dorsal fin spines are not exposed, and the soft dorsal and anal fin bases are of equal length.
1) After penetrating the mesoderm, the pharyngobranchial ducts of the third and fourth pouches typically lose their pharyngeal connections.
These were the sagittal otolith (OTO), as well as the interhyal (INTE), hypobranchial 3 (HYPO), pharyngobranchial 2 (PHAR), angular (ANGU), quadrate (QUAD), and the dentary (DENT).
Anterior three gill arches each of hypobranchial, ceratobranchial, epibranchial and pharyngobranchial, fourth arch of ceratobranchial and epibranchial, fifth arch comprising single ceratobranchial.
Bones included the angular (ANG), quadrate (QUAD), interhyal (INTE), dentary (DENT), pharyngobranchial 2 (PHAR), and hypobranchial 3 (HYPO) (Fig.
2004, this issue) and included the sagittal otolith (OTO), as well as the interhyal (INTE), hypobranchial 3 (HYPO), pharyngobranchial 2 (PHAR), angular (ANGU), quadrate (QUAD), and the dentary (DENT).