Furthermore, [beta]-sitoserol (1), phillygenin (4), mannitol (6), verbascoside (10) and phillyrin
(12) were isolated from this species for the first time.
Phenylethanoid glycosides like forsythoside A, forsythoside B, and lignans such as phillyrin
, forsythialan A, forsythialan B, phillygenin, and 8-hydroxypinoresinol were reported as antioxidant components of FSE (Piao et al.
The lignans are phillyrin, pinoresinol-[beta]-D-glucoside, pinoresinol-di-[beta]-D-glucoside, phillyrin-2-O-[beta]-D-glucoside and phillyrin-6-O-[beta]-D-glucoside, with the secoiridoids reported to be oleuropein, ligustroside and angustifolioside B.
The presence of phillyrin in the stem bark of fringe tree was reported by Steinegger in 1959.
Phillyrin (1) and ligustroside (5) were both easily identifiable in the root bark, being very well resolved from other material with M-1 peaks of 533 and 523 respectively.
8270 mg/ml, respectively, higher largely than that of lignans, such as pinoresinol-p-D-glucoside, arctiin, phillyrin and arctigenin (Fig.
Isoforsythoside (98% pure), rutin, quercetin, pinoresinol-[beta]-D-glucoside, arctiin and phillyrin were purchased from Chengdu Herbpurify Co.
Components Fructus Rat plasma after oral Forsythiae administration of extract Fructus Forsythiae extract 1 Quinic acid + + 2 Forsythoside D + + 3 Caffeic acid + + 4 Forsythoside E + + 5 Hyperoside + + 6 Isoforsythoside + + 7 Rutin + + 8 lsoquercitin + + 9 Forsythoside B + + 10 Forsythoside A + + 11 Pinoresinol-[beta]- + + D-glucoside 12 Al# - + 13 Epipinoresinol- + + [beta]-D-glucoside 14 A2# - + 15 Pinoresinol + - monomethylether- [beta]-D-glucoside 16 Phillyrin + + 17 Quercetin + + 18 Arctiin + - 19 A3# - + 20 Epipinoresinol + + 21 Pinoresinol + + 22 Arctigenin + + 23 Phillygenin + + Peak no.
2011) that the absorption of phillyrin could be neither carried out in the gas-trointestine, nor improved by absorption enhancers such as SDS, bile salt, borneol and carbomer.
In our previous study, we found that ETA instead of phillyrin in weeping forsythia extract was survived good positive correlation between dose and effects of antibacterial, antioxidant and antiviral activities via pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model combined with PLS (partial least squares), and the antibacterial, antioxidant and antiviral effects were improved as the content of FTA in weeping forsythia extract was enhanced, and showing obvious correlation between dose of FTA and pharmacological effects.
Phillyrin (98% pure) and scutellarin (using as internal standard, I.
The result was consistent with the previous report that lignan glucosides like phillyrin, pinoresinol glucoside, arctiin and pinoresinol monomethyether glucoside cannot be well absorbed into Caco-2 cell, which suggested that most of lignan glycosides needed to be transformed into ligan aglycones, and then be absorbed into the plasma Fig.