He had not been forgetful of "Visible Speech" all this while, but had been making experiments with two remarkable machines--the phonautograph
and the manometric capsule, by means of which the vibrations of sound were made plainly visible.
Burrows, an author, producer, and musician in the UK, traces the history of recorded sound through illustrations, from Edouard-Leon Scott de MartinvilleAEs invention of the phonautograph
in 1857 to the streaming music services of today.
While the phonograph has important precursors, such as Edouard-Leon Scott de Martinville's phonautograph
, I focus on Edison's groundbreaking invention.
Contract notice: Supply And Installation Of A Scott De Martinville Phonautograph
For Summer Concerts In The Town Of Enghien Les-Bains
Listening to the recording, which can be found online, Roden produced a cameraless film by scratching ink-coated 16-mm stock, "notating" the music according to an aleatory and intuitive system of spontaneous marks--making himself a kind of human phonautograph
, but charging himself with the duty of subjective interpretation rather than mechanical recording.
It was made on April 9, 1860, by Parisian inventor Edouard-Leon Scott de Martinville on a device called the phonautograph
that scratched sound waves onto a sheet of paper blackened by the smoke of an oil lamp.
The development of sound reproduction is discussed, from Leon Scott's phonautograph
and Edison's phonograph to the emergence of radio and electronic recording.
37-51)--psychologists utilizing familiar and modified physiological instruments such as tuning forks (for "recording vibrations and marking time"), kymographs ("to record any process whose course is a function of time elapsed"), chronographs (used for measuring reaction-time in relation to sense impressions), phonautographs
(for making graphic recordings and taking measurements of speech), and other apparatus could accurately "photograph," as one psychologist put it, a range of putatively "transient phenomena" (Cattell, pp.