Mr Moffat added: "Was this remarkable genetic link a relic of the coming of the cavalry of Manau under Cunedda, and perhaps a substantial number of associated migrants from Pictland
to North Wales?
In this paper we address the social and ideological formation of protohistoric Pictland
We know of only two other similar carvings outside Pictland
- at Dunadd in Argyll and on Edinburgh Castle rock, both of which were capitals of Dark Age kingdoms.
Bede's Life of St Cuthbert records Cuthbert and two brethren travelling to 'the land of the Niduari' in Pictland
, a journey that would have taken him north, passed the northern boundaries of Northumbria and the Firth of Forth to the coast of Fife and beyond (VSC 9).
Alex Woolf won the Saltire history award for From Pictland
to Alba and Ian Duncan was given the research prize for Scott's Shadow.
Moreover, several kings of the line of Kenneth MacAlpin were slam in Moray, and these ongoing straggles should perhaps be viewed as reflecting not only the animosity between the house of MacAlpin and the house of Moray, but also traditional animosity between the descendants of Loairn and Gabrain and the perpetuation of the divisions between northern and southern Pictland
In many ways it is a watershed of critical investigation; but it has two major flaws: first it allows history to ser the agenda in what is essentially a prehistoric period, and second it has little interest in connecting Pictland
to any other lands, even Ireland, England or Scandinavia.
The first relates to the position of Portmahomack on the Moray Firth in the heart of Pictland
In cases where geographically 'Scottish' styles from Dal Riata or Pictland
may have influenced Irish fashion, such as the adoption of bossed penannular brooches in the late ninth century, the chronology post-dates Scandinavian settlement in both regions (Graham-Campbell 1975; Michelli 1993; Johnson 2001).
Evidence for the place of manufacture of the bowls is scarce; the most quoted being the valve of an escutcheon mould from Craig Phadraig (Inverness), suggesting that at least some vessels with openwork escutcheons were made in Pictland
The work of Forsyth (1997) and Taylor (1994) on Pictland
, and Smith (forthcoming) on Brittany are signs that this is already happening.
Mosaics, manuscript illuminations, ivories, frescoes, sculpture (both in wood and stone), metalwork and even textiles figure here, ranging in date from the 5th to the 17th centuries and from Pictland
to Asia Minor.