Mr Moffat added: "Was this remarkable genetic link a relic of the coming of the cavalry of Manau under Cunedda, and perhaps a substantial number of associated migrants from Pictland
to North Wales?
The author reappraises the comparative evidence for political transition among the Picts in conjunction with the material evidence for amalgamation of the various polities of Pictland
We know of only two other similar carvings outside Pictland
- at Dunadd in Argyll and on Edinburgh Castle rock, both of which were capitals of Dark Age kingdoms.
Bede's Life of St Cuthbert records Cuthbert and two brethren travelling to 'the land of the Niduari' in Pictland
, a journey that would have taken him north, passed the northern boundaries of Northumbria and the Firth of Forth to the coast of Fife and beyond (VSC 9).
Alex Woolf won the Saltire history award for From Pictland
to Alba and Ian Duncan was given the research prize for Scott's Shadow.
In cases where geographically 'Scottish' styles from Dal Riata or Pictland
may have influenced Irish fashion, such as the adoption of bossed penannular brooches in the late ninth century, the chronology post-dates Scandinavian settlement in both regions (Graham-Campbell 1975; Michelli 1993; Johnson 2001).
According to The Names of the Island of Britain, 'The length of this Island, from the promontory of Blathaon in Pictland
to the promontory of Penwith in Cornwall, is nine hundred miles.
Although written sources for Pictland
are as meagre as for Wales and Ireland they are rich, the present interpretation of Venicones implies that Pictish society was as warlike and hierarchical as its Welsh and Irish equivalents.