On the other hand, the dramatic shift in the second part to the changes made by Pope Pius X
suggests instead that confessional practice took a new and troubling turn.
3) A study of the relations between the popes of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the Italian state casts light on some of the motivating forces shaping the attitudes of the leading papal musical reformer of the period, Pope Pius X
, (4) as does the recent work of probably the leading Australian scholar researching in the field of Italian history.
Since controversy over communion practices had continued with "increased warmth," the decree recounted that "Certain distinguished men, themselves pastors of souls, have as a result of this urgently begged His Holiness, Pope Pius X
, to deign to settle, by his supreme authority, the question concerning the dispositions required to receive the Eucharist daily.
Historian Sheridan Gilley writes, "Catholic England came of age, when Pope Pius X
in his Constitution Sapienti Consilio of 29 June 1908 declared England no longer a missionary territory" (34).
launched a vast crackdown against "modernism," meaning virtually every attempt to reconcile Catholic thought with the new century, silencing some theologians, excommunicating others, and setting up a network of informants to identify those entertaining unacceptable thoughts.
That past is exemplified by the policies of Pius X
, who reigned from 1903 to 1914 and who is still workshiped by ultraconservatives for combating the plague of modernism.
In memory of the anti-Modernist decrees of Pius X
(1903-1914), Munich church historian Weitlauff analyzes the life and works of Joseph Schnitzer (1859-1939), the only German theologian who was suspended for his alleged Modernism.
The popes, including Leo XIII and Pius X
, valiantly opposed this intellectual movement which had started in Protestant Germany and spread, eventually, to Catholic seminaries and universities.
Though this prototype emerged in the late eighteenth century, popes in subsequent centuries, especially Pius IX (1846-1878) and Pius X
(1903-1914), perfected the anti-modernist position, making it the institutional face of the Catholicism during their reigns.
(1835-1914), Blessed Clement yon Galen (1878-1946), St.
, now officially sainted, was elected in 1903 at age 68 after the quarter-century reign of Leo III and served just 11 years.
The present volume analyzes the reigns of four modern popes: Gregory XVI, Pius IX, Leo XIII, and Pius X