Its implications take one into theoretical areas of innovation, diffusion, and evolution, into contacts as far afield as the Plains Apache
, Mesquakies of the Upper Great Lakes area, and the high civilizations of Mexico.
The Kiowa connection with perhaps another branch of the Plains Apache
, the Kiowa Apache appears to go back to the early 1700s in the Black Hills and they accompanied the Kiowa south.
A tipi, also spelled teepee, is a tall conical dwelling made from animal hides on a structure of several wooden poles, and was traditionally used by the nomadic Native American peoples of the Great Plains of central North America, such as the Lakota (from whose language the name derives), Cheyenne and Plains Apache
Jordan presents Plains Apache
Ethnobotany, an in-depth study and reference of how the Plains Apache
native people of North America used more than 110 plant species in food, medicine, and rituals, and material culture.
The Kiowa and the Plains Apache
claimed rights to much of western Oklahoma.
Socially, the Sun Dance marked the only time the Kiowa bands, as well as the Plains Apache, coalesced in a single encampment; the success of the ritual was contingent on collective cooperation.
The Medicine Lodge Treaty, negotiated in October 1867, and ratified by Congress in 1868, marked the beginning of the end for the Kiowa and neighboring Southern Plains tribes--Cheyenne, Arapaho, Plains Apache, and Comanche--in that it precipitated dramatic and destructive political, economic, and social change among these tribes (Mooney 1979 :182).
By 1901, nineteen churches boasted a membership of 448 Kiowa, Comanche, and Plains Apache Indians, and mission societies operated four of the seven Indian schools on the reservation (White 1888; Kracht 1989:627-28, 638, 1035).
Chalfant argues instead that the Pawnee were not to blame, but that local tribes -- the Comanche, Kiowa, Plains Apache
, Arapaho, and Cheyenne -- led the fighting.
Which is why it is so gratifying to read Grinnell's Chapter 6, 'The Peace with the Kiowas', in which Grinnell recounts, in loving detail, the diplomatic overtures, meetings, councils, and finally, the great meeting on the Arkansas River in 1840 of Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Kiowas, Comanches, and Plains Apaches
where they concluded a peace agreement which was never broken.
Also known as the Kiowa-Apaches, or Plains Apaches
, the Apache Tribe of Oklahoma is the smallest of the three groups that lived on the Kiowa-Comanche-Apache Reservation (K-C-A).