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1. A former empire of eastern Europe and northern Asia. From a collection of mostly Slavic principalities dominated by the Tatars, Russia emerged as a unified state centered around Moscow between the 14th and 16th centuries. The empire spread quickly to the east and south, becoming a world power by the 18th century. In the 19th century, Russia experienced a flowering of the arts and literature and some liberal social reforms, but popular discontent with the conservative Tsarist government led to revolutions in 1905 and 1917, the collapse of the empire, and the formation of the USSR in 1922.
2. Officially Russian Federation A country of eastern Europe and northern Asia stretching from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean. Formerly the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, the largest of the constituent republics of the USSR, it became an independent state in 1991 with Boris Yeltsin as the country's first directly elected president. In that same year, with Belarus and Ukraine, Russia formed the Commonwealth of Independent States, which was eventually joined by 12 of the 15 former Soviet republics. In March 1992 Russia signed a treaty with most of the semiautonomous ethnic territories within its borders, establishing the Russian Federation. Moscow is the capital.
nRussian name: Rossiya
1. (Placename) the largest country in the world, covering N Eurasia and bordering on the Pacific and Arctic Oceans and the Baltic, Black, and Caspian Seas: originating from the principality of Muscovy in the 17th century, it expanded to become the Russian Empire; the Tsar was overthrown in 1917 and the Communist Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic was created; this merged with neighbouring Soviet Republics in 1922 to form the Soviet Union; on the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 the Russian Federation was established as an independent state; Russia's annexation of the Ukrainian region of Crimea in 2014 has not been internationally recognized. Official language: Russian. Religion: nonreligious and Russian orthodox Christian. Currency: rouble. Capital: Moscow. Pop: 142 500 482 (2013 est). Area: 17 074 984 sq km (6 592 658 sq miles)
2. (Historical Terms) another name for the Russian Empire
3. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) another name for the Russian Empire
4. (Placename) another name for the former Soviet Union
5. (Placename) another name for the former Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
1. Also called Russian Empire . Russian, Rossiya. a former empire in E Europe and N and W Asia: overthrown by the Russian Revolution 1917. Cap.: St. Petersburg (1703–1917).
See also communism.
one of those who conspired to overthrow Russian Czar Nicholas I in December, 1825. Also Dekebrist.
study of the policies, doctrines, programs, etc., of the government of the Soviet Union. — Kremlinologist, n.
something characteristic of or influenced by Russia, its people, customs, language, etc.
an obsession with Russia and things Russian.
great fondness for or interest in Russia, its people, customs, language, art, etc. — Russophile, n., adj.
one who specializes in the study of Slavic languages, literatures, or other aspects of Slavic culture. Also Slavist.
enthusiasm for or admiration of things Slavic, as Slavic literature, language, culture, customs, etc. — Slavophil, Slavophile, n., adj.
fear or hatred of things Slavic, especially of real or imagined Soviet political influence. — Slavophobe, n. — Slavophobic, adj.
1. the soviet system of government and the principles and practices of such a government.
2. a policy, action, etc., typical of the Soviet Union. — Sovietist, sovietist, n., adj.
2. a policy, action, etc., typical of the Soviet Union. — Sovietist, sovietist, n., adj.
study of the Soviet Union, especially its government, policies, etc. — Sovietologist, n.
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|Noun||1.||Russia - a former communist country in eastern Europe and northern Asia; established in 1922; included Russia and 14 other soviet socialist republics (Ukraine and Byelorussia and others); officially dissolved 31 December 1991|
February Revolution, Russian Revolution - the revolution against the czarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917
October Revolution, Russian Revolution - the coup d'etat by the Bolsheviks under Lenin in November 1917 that led to a period of civil war which ended in victory for the Bolsheviks in 1922
Russian - the Slavic language that is the official language of Russia
razbliuto - the sentimental feeling you have about someone you once loved but no longer do
kvass - fermented beverage resembling beer but made from rye or barley
kolkhoz - a collective farm owned by the communist state
Soviet Socialist Republic - one of the states that formerly made up the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922-1991)
Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, Soviet Russia, Russia - formerly the largest Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR occupying eastern Europe and northern Asia
Caspian, Caspian Sea - a large saltwater lake between Iran and Russia fed by the Volga River; the largest inland body of water in the world
steppe - extensive plain without trees (associated with eastern Russia and Siberia)
balagan - a word for chaos or fiasco borrowed from modern Hebrew (where it is a loan word from Russian); "it was utter and complete balagan!"
svoboda - (Russia) freedom
|2.||Russia - formerly the largest Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR occupying eastern Europe and northern Asia|
Borodino - Napoleon defeated the Russians in 1812 in a pitched battle at a village in western Russia west of Moscow, but irreparably weakened his army
Russia, Soviet Union, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR - a former communist country in eastern Europe and northern Asia; established in 1922; included Russia and 14 other soviet socialist republics (Ukraine and Byelorussia and others); officially dissolved 31 December 1991
Komi - a member of a Finnish people living in the northwestern Urals in Russia
Inger, Ingerman, Ingrian - a member of western Finnish people formerly living in the Baltic province where Saint Petersburg was built
Mordva, Mordvin, Mordvinian - a member of the agricultural people living in the central Volga provinces of European Russia
Russian - a native or inhabitant of Russia
|3.||Russia - a former empire in eastern Europe and northern Asia created in the 14th century with Moscow as the capital; powerful in the 17th and 18th centuries under Peter the Great and Catherine the Great when Saint Petersburg was the capital; overthrown by revolution in 1917|
Muscovy - a Russian principality in the 13th to 16th centuries; Moscow was the capital
Aleksandr Pavlovich, Alexander I, Czar Alexander I - the czar of Russia whose plans to liberalize the government of Russia were unrealized because of the wars with Napoleon (1777-1825)
Alexander II, Alexander the Liberator, Czar Alexander II - the son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs (1818-1881)
|4.||Russia - a federation in northeastern Europe and northern Asia; formerly Soviet Russia; since 1991 an independent state|
CIS, Commonwealth of Independent States - an alliance made up of states that had been Soviet Socialist Republics in the Soviet Union prior to its dissolution in Dec 1991
Foreign Intelligence Service, Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki, SVR - Russia's intelligence service responsible for foreign operations, intelligence-gathering and analysis, and the exchange of intelligence information; collaborates with other countries to oppose proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, terrorism and organized crime
Karelia - a region in Finland and Russia between the Gulf of Finland and the White Sea
capital of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian capital - a city of central European Russia; formerly capital of both the Soviet Union and Soviet Russia; since 1991 the capital of the Russian Federation
Astrakhan - a city in southwestern Russia on the delta of the Volga River
Cherepovets - a city of east central Russia to the north of Moscow
Chechen Republic, Chechenia, Chechnya - an autonomous republic in southwestern Russia in the northern Caucasus Mountains bordering on Georgia; declared independence from the USSR in 1991 but Russian troops invaded and continue to prosecute a relentless military campaign in the largely Muslim republic
Kaluga - a city of central Russia to the south of Moscow
Khabarovsk - an administrative territory in Russia on the eastern coast of Siberia
Kursk - a city of southwestern Russia
Siberia - a vast Asian region of Russia; famous for long cold winters
European Russia - the part of Russia that is part of Europe
Gorkiy, Nizhni Novgorod, Nizhnyi Novgorod, Gorky, Gorki - an industrial city in the European part of Russia; birthplace of Maksim Gorky
Kazan - an industrial city in the European part of Russia
Leningrad, Peterburg, Petrograd, Saint Petersburg, St. Petersburg - a city in the European part of Russia; 2nd largest Russian city; located at the head of the Gulf of Finland; former capital of Russia
Murmansk - a port city in northwestern Russia on the Kola Peninsula; the largest city to the north of the Arctic Circle; an important supply line to Russia in World War I and World War II
Nalchik - a city in southwestern Russia in a valley of the Caucasus Mountains; an industrial center and health resort
Novgorod - a city in northwestern Russia on the Volkhov River; Russia's oldest city and an important trading center in the Middle Ages
Rostov, Rostov na Donu, Rostov on Don - a seaport on the Don River near the Sea of Azov in the European part of Russia
Saratov - an industrial city in the European part of Russia
Smolensk - a city in western Russia on the Dnieper River; scene of severe fighting in World War II
Ufa - a city in the European part of Russia
Stalingrad, Tsaritsyn, Volgograd - a city in the European part of Russia on the Volga; site of German defeat in World War II in the winter of 1942-43
Novosibirsk - a city in the Asian part of Russia on the Ob river; largest city in Siberia
Chelyabinsk - a city in the Asian part of Russia
Omsk - a city in the Asian part of Russia
Vladivostok - a seaport in the Asian part of Russia
Nova Zembla, Novaya Zemlya - two islands in the Arctic Ocean belonging to Russia; site of a test center for nuclear warheads
Kola Peninsula - a peninsula in northwestern Russia projecting eastward between the Barents Sea and the White Sea
Amur, Amur River, Heilong, Heilong Jiang - an Asian river between China and Russia; flows into the Sea of Okhotsk
Dnieper, Dnieper River - a river that rises in Russia near Smolensk and flowing south through Belarus and Ukraine to empty into the Black Sea
Ilmen, Lake Ilmen - a lake in northwestern Russia; drains through the Volkhov River into Lake Ladoga
Ladoga, Lake Ladoga - a lake in northwestern Russia to the north of St. Petersburg; the largest lake in Europe; drains through the Neva River into the Gulf of Finland
Lake Onega, Onega - lake in northwestern Russia near the border with Finland; second largest lake in Europe
Russia[ˈrʌʃə] N → Rusia f
n → Russland nt