We inquired, and learned that the lions of Smyrna consisted of the ruins of the ancient citadel, whose broken and prodigious battlements frown upon the city from a lofty hill just in the edge of the town--the Mount Pagus of Scripture, they call it; the site of that one of the Seven Apocalyptic Churches of Asia which was located here in the first century of the Christian era; and the grave and the place of martyrdom of the venerable Polycarp
, who suffered in Smyrna for his religion some eighteen hundred years ago.
For myself, I swear by the learned Polycarp
that I have most ease with Hebrew, and after that perchance with Arabian.
Training Union Lessons for Young People's Department on Polycarp
, Justin, Tertullian, and Origen.
According to Georg Strecker, 1 John is the first Johannine text attested to by an independent source, Polycarp
of Smyrna (d.
Burnette (Adjunct Instructor, College of Biblical Studies, Houston, Texas); and Terri Darby Moore (New Testament Studies, Dallas Theological Seminary), "A Reader's Lexicon of the Apostolic Fathers" is a 256 page compendium that provides the English word meaning to the original Greek words for the eighteen documents attributed to the Apostolic Fathers Clement, Ignatius, Polycarp
, and Barnabas, as well as The Traditions of the Elders; The Fragments of Papais', The Fragment of Quadratus; The Letter to Dignetus; The Shepherd of Hermas; the Didache; and The Martydom of Polycarp
They include Clement of Rome, Ignatius of Antioch, Polycarp
of Smyrna, the author of the Didache, and the author of the Shepherd of Hermas.
Afoakwa EO (1) *, Polycarp
D (1), Budu AS (1), Mensah-Brown H (2), E Otoo (3)
Ignatius in his letter to Bishop Polycarp
may offer shrewd advice: "In all circumstances, be wise as the serpent, though always harmless as the dove" (Antypas n.
To the second-century author of the Martyrdom of Polycarp
, venerated bones are "more precious than the most exquisite jewels, and more purified than gold," an opportunity to celebrate the dead saint's Christ-like martyrdom "with joy and rejoicing" (10).
The first saints turned up when the faithful collected the bones of martyrs like Polycarp
(barbecued like Lawrence in AD 155) because he could speak to God on their behalf and protect them from those damn demons lurking everywhere.
Moss writes that "once the pious chaff has been separated and the forged weeds cut" there remain only six "authentic accounts" of martyrs, among them Polycarp
, Perpetua and Felicity, and Justin Martyr.
church in Juja Road, in the Eastleigh suburb located in the capital.