Hale provides a nice account of Wallace's often overlooked address to London's Anthropological Society that attempted to reconcile its avowed polygenism
with the monogenism espoused in Darwin and Thomas Henry Huxley's Ethnological Society.
marks the moment when the doctrine of polygenism
had finally declined out of view, lifting the racist penumbra that had overshadowed any consideration of cultures as distinct" (50).
It is impossible, for instance, to understand Desor's publications on Egyptian flints or those on Siberian grave finds without realizing, even if this is never explicitly referred to in these archaeological works, that the debates about the Egyptian Neolithic or the Russian Bronze Age were instrumental in another discussion --the major anthropological debate on monogenism versus polygenism
Initially, Darwinism was shunned by the academic community in favor of a militant adherence to the scientific theory of polygenism
, the belief that the races of mankind each had distinct origins.
Embedded in this debate over racial fusion were conflicting debates in France over how races originated: Paul Broca's monogenism, "which posited an original race from which all subsequent races had emerged," and Arthur de Gobineau's polygenism
, "which argued that a variety of 'pure' races had existed during the early period of human life.
10) The genie of polygenism
had been let out of its bottle.
In the end, Luse argues, the proslavery Christian position could not prevail against the power of polygenism
Despite the popularity of polygenism
in the 19th century, the most commonly held view for the origin of human races in America was monogenist.
The pope also said that regardless of what evolutionary theories there are about polygenism
, the Roman Catholic Church knows from the Bible that all human beings descended from Adam.
101) Although Pope Pius XII's encyclical Humani generis (1950) had opened the door to accepting the possibility of evolution, it had explicitly noted and condemned any acceptance of polygenism
as well as any alterations to the doctrine of original sin--"which proceeds from a sin actually committed by an individual Adam and which through generation is passed on to all and is in everyone as his own.
Other questions discussed by Firmin were polygenism
After evolutionary theory became widely accepted, multiregionalism arose as a scientific version of polygenism