The concept died out in Judaism with the dispersal of Jews around the world but was relaunched in a Catholic format by Pope Boniface VIII
in 1300 with pilgrimages to Rome at its heart.
The Sicilian Guiscards' treatment of Pope Gregory VII and the French king Philip IV's brutalizing of Pope Boniface VIII
come to mind.
Jennifer Petrie, in a recent Lectura Dantis, gives the often quoted reasons for Guido's punishment the account by the fourteenth-century chronicler Riccobaldo da Ferrara, according to whom Pope Boniface VIII
asked Guido for help to sack the city of Palestrina, the stronghold of the Colonna, Boniface's enemy.
In a later dispute between Pope Boniface VIII
and King Philip IV of France over the king's imposition of taxes on the clergy, Boniface wrote his famous decree, Unam sanctam, claiming papal supremacy in the temporal sphere.
It all happened in the year 1300 of the Incarnation of our Lord, when Peter's Vicar on earth, Pope Boniface VIII
, proclaimed that from the previous Christmas to the next and on every hundreds year following, Roman Catholics visiting the basilicas of St.
He was a monk and resigned within four months to return to his monastery, but was imprisoned by his successor, Pope Boniface VIII
, to prevent his restoration.
Pope Boniface VIII
, for example, believed both swords should be in the hands of the church, that a medieval king should have no power other than that granted to him by the pope.
The church did not get around to proclaiming doctors until the 13th century when Pope Boniface VIII
named the original four: Saints Ambrose (340-397 A.
104, that "in May 1266, the year after Dante was born, the two Bolognese [Catalano and Loderingo] were appointed by Pope Boniface VIII
as peacemaking chief magistrates of faction-torn Florence" (400).
Here he contributes to the growing body of primary texts available about the controversies between Philip IV of France and Pope Boniface VIII
in 1296-1303, by offering an edition, in Latin with his English translation on facing pages, of the only political tract penned by James (1255-1307), the Archbishop of Naples.
These three themes would shape the way Pope Boniface VIII
praised Louis's sanctity in the bull of canonization as well as the way he and others would evoke Louis in sermons.
However meager, some biographical details about Dante go unchallenged: he was married, had children, fought in the military campaign of Campaldino against the Aretines (June 1289), enrolled in a guild (1295), began a political career, craved recognition, was notoriously litigious, and in 1302, while on an embassy to the papal court and thanks to the maneuvers of Pope Boniface VIII
, was exiled from his native city.