Bruno of Toul

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Noun1.Bruno of Toul - German pope from 1049 to 1054 whose papacy was the beginning of papal reforms in the 11th century (1002-1054)
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The focal point of the Eastern Orthodox Church for nearly one thousand years, the building witnessed the excommunication of Patriarch Michael I Cerularius on the part of Pope Leo IX in 1054, an act which is commonly considered the start of the Great Schism.
While no reasonable person will expect that one man can effect all reforms overnight, a paradigm shift would be possible in five years: This was shown by the Lorraine Pope Leo IX (1049-54) who prepared Gregory VII's reforms, and in the 20th century by the Italian John XXIII (1958-63) who called the Second Vatican Council.
According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, it was Pope Leo IX who started in lO54 the practice of referring to the Donation of Constantine as evidence for the dual nature of the papacy.
Initially, it was so destructive to both the old monastic establishments and papal lands that Pope Leo IX found the remedy in a military expedition against Normans in 1053 that resulted in the defeat of the papal forces.
Tensions were running so high that year that Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Michael Cerularius excommunicated each other, formally ripping open the divide between the Roman and Orthodox churches.
On July 16, 1054, Pope Leo IX excommunicated Cerularius, the Patriarch of Constantinople, who, in his turn, excommunicated the Pope.
His charge was to hold back the Norman invaders and to form an alliance with Pope Leo IX.
The papal reform of the eleventh century; lives of Pope Leo IX and Pope Gregory VII.