She covers the definition of indulgences, their historiography, the reward granted at Clermont in 1095, spiritual rewards for warriors before the First Crusade, Pope Urban II
and the spiritual merit for the First Crusade, the indulgences in the 11th century, the theology of indulgences, the crusade indulgence as a privilege, the development of the spiritual privilege, the defense of Christ and Christendom, the service and imitation of Christ, from sacrificium acceptabile to tempus acceptabile, and preaching and sermons.
In 1096, the crusades officially began with a call to action by Pope Urban II
The Crusades lasted for seven centuries killing thousands of people after Pope Urban II
famously said, "Deus vult
The 18 papers in the proceedings consider such topics as the geo-strategies and historical perspectives of Pope Urban II
and 'Ali ibn Tahir al-Sulami, the impact of crusading ideology on early 12th-century Denmark, the rationality behind Manuel I Domnenos' attempt to reform the abjuration formula for converts from Islam, the Armenian kingdom and the Mongol-Frankish encounter, and Baybars and the crusades in Arab film and television.
In 1095, Pope Urban II
called upon all of Christendom to go to war to support the Byzantine Empire, thus launching the Crusades.
It did not develop by historical processes but was "created" or "invented by Pope Urban II
in 1095," (2) or had its origin in an idea in the mind of Pope Urban (r.
It was Pope Urban II
who declared the 1st Crusade (1095) that lasted over 100 years.
He traces how the first Crusade began with a sermon by Pope Urban II
and ended in a two-day blood bath, the sacking of Jerusalem and the slaughter of its inhabitants.
In 1095 an assembly of churchmen called by Pope Urban II
met at Clermont, France," says the International World History Project.
Reality was, of course, quite different as the majority of the Christian soldiers were, in fact, criminals, rapists and murderers who were seeking the divine absolution promised to them by Pope Urban II
was the call from Pope Urban II
to all Christians to crusade to free the Holy Land from the clutches of Islam.
The sermon of Pope Urban II
in 1095 continues to echo today.