Leak detection market for oil & gas based on technologies has been segmented into negative pressure wave
analysis, E-RTTM, fiber optic sensing cables, vapor sensing tubes, mass-volume balance method, and others.
If a sufficiently large leak occurs suddenly, for example if the pipeline is damaged by an excavator, a negative pressure wave
spreads at the speed of sound in both directions along the pipeline.
The team also found that an initial small pressure wave
helps prevent melting later during the gradual ramp-up of the compression to 50 million times Earth's atmospheric pressure at sea level.
Of the 192 lasers at NIF, the team used 176 with exquisitely shaped energy versus time to produce a pressure wave
that compressed the material for a short period of time and the sample diamond was vaporized in less than 10 billionths of a second.
If a deflagration occurs in the dust collector, a pressure wave
will travel through the pipe faster than the flame front and close the flap valve, protecting downstream personnel and equipment from injury and damage.
This can be detected by discrete sensors used for pressure wave
detection -- but relies on sheer luck on positioning.
This pressure is sufficient to rupture the containment chamber, releasing a pressure wave
and fire front.
The pressure wave
actually snapped a couple of the machine guns in half.
Clinicians have been asking for an LAB that combines all of the benefits of fiber optic technology, faster initiation of therapy, easier patient management and a crisp, clean arterial pressure wave
form with increased hemodynamic support," said Deb Joseph, vice president, marketing and clinical services.
By comparing the pressure wave
readings recorded by the sensors with the CT scans and injury summaries, the researchers can determine the relationships between the pressures the animals received and the damage they sustained.
Hydrophones are arranged in both 2-D and 3-D arrays such that the arrival time of the pressure wave
to each sensor can be triangulated to pinpoint both distance and direction to the source of the sound wave.
The AWT produces a pressure wave
that passes through skin and fat to impact the fibrous septae.