a.1.(Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or designating, an organic acid which is obtained as a white crystalline substance from catechin, asafetida, oil of cloves, etc., and by distillation itself yields pyrocatechin.
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Harvested on Jeju Island - a protected UNESCO biosphere reserve of Korea - the red flower is rich in protocatechuic acid, a polyphenol known for its antioxidant properties.
In the studied extracts, ten phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, chlorogenic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, tr-cinnamic and o-coumaric acids) were determined by an HPLC gradient system.
sup][2],[3],[4],[5],[6] Following the administration of clinical and nonclinical studies of CDDPs to either rats or healthy volunteers, Tanshinol and its main metabolite 4-hydroxy-3-methoxylphenyllactic acid,[sup][3] protocatechualdehyde and its main metabolite protocatechuic acid,[sup][4] notoginsenoside R[sub]1, and ginsenosides Rg[sub]1 and Rb[sub]1[sup][5] were detectable in the blood samples.
The identification of phenolic compounds were made by comparison of retention times and absorption spectra with different patterns of phenols present in rice bran (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric, ferulic gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, syringic and vanillin obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, USA).
leucocephala phytochemical profile, there are in its composition compounds as mimosine (b-[N-(3-hydroxy-4-oxopyridyl)]--a-aminopropionic acid), and gallic acids, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic, vanillic, ferulic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids (Chou & Kuo, 1986; Aderogba, McGaw, Bezabih, & Abegaz, 2010; Hassan, Tawfik, & Abou-Setta, 2014).
showed that several polyphenols, including resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, rutin, and protocatechuic acid formulated in oil-in-water emulsions could permeate the stratum corneum and were identified in the epidermis and dermis.
Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, (+)-catechin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, (-)-epicatechin, syringic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, benzoic acid, o-coumaric acid, rutin, hesperidin, rosmarinic acid, eriodictyol, trans-cinnamic acid, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol and apigenin were used as standards.
Studies carried out using co-injection with standards, revealed the presence of protocatechuic acid, epicatequin, p-coumaric acid, galic acid and kaempferol as major constituents of Ac-EtOH (GOUVEIA et al.