ochroleuca, and a great variety of alkaloids (berberine, palmatine, protopine
, sarguinarine, optisine, chelerythrine, atropine, dihydrosanguinarine, dihydro-chelerythrine, [alpha]-allacriptopine, heleritrine, queilantifoline, scouletrine, reticuline, and copsitine) were identified (Israilov et al.
parviflora components such as 23a-homostigmast-5-en-3b-ol (C30H52O) and cis- and trans-protopinium or protopine
(C20H19N+O5) were previously isolated through bioactivity-guided isolation (Naz et al.
The plant contains, as major constituents, isoquinoline alkaloids (such as sanguinarine, chelidonine, chelerythrine, berberine, protopine
and coptisine), flavonoids, and phenolic acids.
Results: The chemical analysis of AFC revealed the presence of 23 alkaloids, being the most abundants stylopine, protopine
The quaternary benzophenanthridine and protopine
alkaloids (QBA+PA) have both anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects (Kosina et al.
122), (33) before being converted to protopine
by N-methylstylopine hydroxylase (MSH; EC 1.
, 6 hidroxilasa NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase DBOX: dihidrobenzo- EC 1.
The Main constituents: The plant contains the alkaloids fumarine, protopine
and adlumidicaine, isoquinoline alkaloids, lahorine and lahoramine.
Antispasmodic and relaxant activity of chelidonine, protopine
, coptisine, and Chelidonium majus extracts on isolated guinea-pig ileum.
Sanguinaria conadensis Alkaloids such as sanguinarine, protopine
, cholerythrine; and chelidone acid.
2%), sanguinarine (98%), chelerythrine (97%), protopine
(100%) and gemcitabine (100%) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich.
Several known isoquinoline alkaloids were isolated from Thalictrum foetidum: thalactamine, protopine
, thalidezine, hernandezine, O-methylthalicberine, thaligosine, berberine, laudanine, fetidine, argemonine, and argemonine N-oxide (6) (Velcheva et al.