And field observations in southern Japan's Amami islands, the frog's only home, showed that the males indeed jab their spikes into the sides of the females to hold on during amplexus - a form of pseudocopulation
in which the males mount the female and fertilize her eggs as, or soon after, she lays them.
The evolution and widespread occurrence of pollination through pseudocopulation
in orchids depends of specialist pollinators, as does brood site pollination in Paphiopedilum, both of which employ single species of a single gender as a pollinator.
in nature in a unisexual whiptail lizard.
, as the bee-flower activity is termed, occurs between several specific members of the Ophrys genus species of bee, wasp, and even some flies.
grasslei have been tentatively classified as introsperm, since pseudocopulation
and internal fertilization has been hypothesized for this species (Zal et al.
The duration of copulation was recorded to eliminate any "pseudocopulations
"; in the rare event of a pseudocopulation
, the female was substituted.
However, apart from reports of pseudocopulation
(Paulissen & Walker 1989; Paulissen 1995) and interspecific copulation between parthenogenetic LAR-A females and males of the bisexual species C.
According to Cuellar, pseudocopulation
has no real significance in nature: "Captivity results in a series of bizarre activities, of which female-female copulation is one.
Oligochaetes use a mechanism of pseudocopulation
to deliver spermatozeugmata to the spermatheca of mating partners.
Four (8%) movements within the patch involved landing on one flower then moving to another where attempted copulation occurred, whereas an additional [TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 3 OMITTED] four (8%) movements consisted of contact with a second flower following pseudocopulation
with the first.
Although copulation (De Groot, 1907) and pseudocopulation
(Anderson, 1959) have been proposed for other orbiniids, Chapman (1965) suggested that males and females come into close association during spawning and that eggs are fertilized as they emerge along with the jelly secretions.
or pairing has been observed in Archaster typicus (Ohshima and Ikeda, 1934; Komatsu, 1983; Run et al.