In contrast, land managers search for effective herbicides to control some of the problematic weedy ferns such as Pteridium aquilinum
Pinus sylvestris and Empetrum nigrum occurred only in peat blocks from the marginal parts of the peatlands, while Populus tremula, Pteridium aquilinum
, and Vaccinium uliginosum were present only in blocks from the central parts.
This increase in species number was mainly determined by spread out of pioneer early succesional herb species (Calamagrostis epigejos, Equisetum hyemale, Pteridium aquilinum
, Rubus idaeus, R saxatilis, Scorzonera humilis, Solidago virgaurea, Ceratodon purpureus, Polytrichum juniperinum).
Other less used plant species were: Andropogon lateralis (n = 3), Erechtites hieraciifolius (n = 3), Baccharis coridifolia (n = 2), Eupatorium betoniciiforme (n = 2), Pteridium aquilinum
(n = 2), and Vernonia spp.
For example a common strategy employed to discourage the theft of produce from an unattended farm was to make coils of Pteridium aquilinum
(common bracken) fronds and arranging several of them around the field.
Passiflora suberosa, Prunus myrtifolia, Pteridium aquilinum
, Morinda royoc, and Simarouba glauca are all native to Everglades habitats.
A treatment may simultaneously consist of both oral as well as topical administration; for treatment of abdominal edema, the leaves of Pteridium aquilinum
are cooked and eaten as vegetable, while the roots are tied to the abdomen.
Species of plant Common name Pteridium aquilinum
Western bracken fern Picea engelmannii Blue spruce Toxicodendron diversilobum Poison oak Artemisia californica Coastal sagebrush Artemisia douglasiana Mugwort Baccharis pilularis Coyote brush Lonicera interrupts Chaparral honeysuckle Non-local Lonicera Honeysuckle Sambucus mexicana Blue elderberry Arctostaphylos Manzanita Quercus agrifolia Coast live oak Quercus douglasii Blue oak Ribes californicum Hillside gooseberry Salvia mellifera Black sage Ceanothus cuneatus Buckbrush Cercocarpus betuloides California mountain-mahogany Rosa californica California wild rose Rubus ursinus Pacific blackberry Galium porrigens Bedstraw
There are three main species of edible ferns in North America: ostrich fern Matteucia strutbiopteris, lady fern Atbyrium filix-femina, and bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum