Direct pupillary light reflex
, menace response, and palpebral reflex were present in all birds.
Pupillary light reflex
(PLR), the contraction response of the pupil to light stimulation , is mainly controlled by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of the autonomic nervous system; hence, pupil changes are not influenced by the external environment or psychological stress .
A 14-year-old female patient presented to our outpatient clinic because of absent pupillary light reflex
on neurological examination performed in another center.
Positive prognostic indicators include brachycephalic confirmation, minimal globe displacement and presence of pupillary light reflex
(Gilger et al.
They speculated that in humans such neurological deficits might lead to impairment of the oculomotor system, accommodation, and pupillary light reflex
8C pulse 200/min respiratory rate 60/min capillary refill time 6s lethargy pallor mottled skin pin point miosis poor pupillary light reflex
feeble pulse cold extremities harsh breath sounds fine rales on both lungs muffled heart sounds no murmur and hepatosplenomegaly hypotonia absent Moro reflex.
1,8,9] The pupillary light reflex
is an indirect measure of brain stem injury and herniation as compression of the third cranial nerve results in a fixed and dilated pupil.
Her pupil diameter was 4 mm, and her pupillary light reflex
It was impossible to have cooperation with the patient due to the mixed aphasia and her pupils were anisocoric (right > left), and pupillary light reflex
can be taken.
Oval pupil in patients with diabetes mellitus: examination by measurement of the dark-adapted pupillary area and pupillary light reflex
Visual acuity was found to be 6/60; there was loss of temporal field of vision, with sluggish pupillary light reflex
, and normal extraocular muscles along with slight papilloedema.
40% (40) of the patients with absent pupillary light reflex
were found to have a poor outcome.