Standard Chinese or Mandarin (official; Putonghua
, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
He/she shall have Chinese Putonghua
proficiency with standard Putonghua
pronunciation and the Mandarin test result shall be above Band Two;
I recently talked with a professor from a Chinese university and he told me that Chinese tour agencies have been asking for help to get more Filipino tour guides who can speak Putonghua
or Mandarin Chinese.
The seminar will be conducted in Cantonese and Putonghua
Spratt (2008) investigated 526 Hong Kong university students' motivation to learn different target languages (English, Putonghua
, and French/German/Japanese).
On October 23, 1955, the National Convention on Script Reform (Qudnguo wenzi gaige huiyi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] made a resolution calling for the "widespread promotion of Putonghua
[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] that takes Beijing pronunciation as standard.
The whole interview was conducted in Putonghua
, and audio-recorded, with additional observation notes taken by the interviewer.
She can understand and speak some putonghua
(Mandarin), but derives her source of authority and authenticity not from any reference to mainland China, but from her Teochew upbringing in Thailand and knowledge gleaned from her father, from family practices and from her own research in countries such as Hong Kong.
Esto, no obstante, puede encontrar obstaculos en tanto existen rasgos culturales que no permiten la implementacion de politicas "modernizantes"; la autora cita el caso de la sustitucion del cantones, tipico de Guangzhou, por el putonghua
, o chino estandar.
9) There is a third, officially recognised, spoken language: Putonghua
Chinese immigrants, for their part, are frustrated by what they perceive as aloofness, as well as a lack of fluency in standard Mandarin, or putonghua
, among Singaporean Chinese proof that their island cousins are not truly Chinese.
In official documents, the Mandarin language is called putonghua