Haikou is home to dozens of volcanoes from the Quaternary period
, which allowing visitors to spend more time outside at Haikou Volcanic Cluster Global Geopark during the less torrid season.
The youngest clays originate from the glacial lakes of the last glacial period that date back to the Quaternary Period
(11,500 years ago).
Before the Quaternary period
the formation of the bedrock topography was controlled by tectonic processes and denudation.
6 million-year history of the Quaternary Period
, with the most recent one peaking about 21,000 years ago and ending approximately 12,000 years ago.
Apatite fission-track dating of variable lithological types of crystalline rocks from the Karakoram Metamorphic Complex and the Karakoram Batholith gives evidence of an increasing significance of erosion rates from the period of a slow rate (Upper Miocene to Pliocene) to the Quaternary period
of a relative rapid rate.
Until recently, everybody agreed that we live in the Holocene epoch of the Quaternary period
, which in turn is part of the 65-million-year old Cenozoic era, the most recent phase of the 540-million-year Phanerozoic aeon.
The results give scientists a clearer picture of how to reconstruct glacial response to climate change from as far back as when the glaciers were first formed many hundreds of thousands of years ago in the Quaternary Period
, a geologic time period that includes the ice ages and extends to present day.
The value of Kama incision offset for the Quaternary period
is comparable to Volga offset of the Kazan area.
Tackling the ongoing debates over the megafaunal mass extinctions of the late Quaternary period
, for instance, Paul Jentz demonstrates how cross-disciplinary collaboration can contribute to ongoing paleontological, climatological, and historical debates.