From these roots in folk culture and history, she began her work on a series of sixty ballads called Angel in the Forest, which was to be a poetic history of the early nineteenth-century Rappite
and Owenite utopian communities in New Harmony, Indiana.
Peter Kaufmann (1800-1869) founded the first "Labor for Love" store in Reading, Pennsylvania before joining the Rappite
community in Economy, Pennsylvania.
As such Queenwood deserves to be compared to New Harmony in Indiana (1825-7), except that the latter was founded in an existing Rappite
town whereas Harmony in England was built on a green-field site and so was a unique statement of practical Owenism" (1).
Like their Rappite
predecessors, the Owenites faced antagonism from their neighbors, including a newspaper which, opposed to Owenite divorce and remarriage, called them "whores and whoremongers, .
The large band of unhappy Rappites
continued to mingle freely with the visitors.
An article in The Regenerator on John Minter Morgan started Crump thinking about the various schemes for pauper colonies and other communitarian groups such as the Shakers and the Rappites
Such a community, he believed, had to be removed from the pervasive corruption of the old order and so a township and estate of 20,000 acres was purchased in the American state of Indiana from a German Pietist sect, the Rappites
New Harmony, whether under the Rappites
or the Owenites.
The first celibate, millenialistic community was called Harmonists or Rappites
after their founder George Rapp; the second group was called Owenites after their leader, the Scottish social reformer Robert Owen.
Picking up on this promised land theme many "utopian communities" capitalizing on the now abundant land were spawned, such as the Rappites
and Separatists, Robert Owen and the New Harmony Society, Mormons, Shakers, and the Oneida Community.
In New Harmony, Indiana, an Adventist sect called the Rappites
was established by George Rapp.
Moving back to Pennsylvania, the Rappites
established Economy (now Ambridge), northwest of Pittsburgh.