This, in turn, has to be understood in a wider social, economic, and historical conjuncture, including a long-standing restrictionary
policy toward immigrants, a pre-existing institutional culture of confinement, an attempt to reassert sovereignty following the shift towards a global economy and the acceptance of European labor migration, and the operation of a Common Travel Area between Ireland and the UK.
Finally, trade disputes between China and the United States are a growing concern for Hong Kong businessmen as the United States is a major export market and their goods may be impacted by any restrictionary
trade legislation passed by Congress.
The influx of foreign medical graduates between 1980 and 2000 has been a major force in ameliorating the restrictionary
efforts of organized medicine.
After giving substantial support in 1990, the budget impact on the western German economy became more restrictionary
in the course of 1991 and 1992, reflecting efforts to limit the rise in public sector borrowing in the face of a much larger than expected real resource transfer to the east.