Under the Ottoman Empire it was Turkestan and after Russian control over it, this region was known as Russian Turkestan
18) The economic theme is not very popular in current scholarship, but there are a few works worth noting: Ekaterina Pravilova, Finansy imperii: Den 'gi i vlast' v politike Rossii na natsional'nykh okrainakh (Moscow: Novoe izdatel'stvo, 2006); Pravilova, "The Property of Empire: Islamic Law and Russian Agrarian Policy in Transcaucasia and Turkestan," Kritika 12, 2 (2011): 353-86; Beatrice Penati, "The Cotton Boom and the Land Tax in Russian Turkestan
(1880s-1915)," Kritika 14, 4 (2013): 105-25; and Beatrice Penati, "Adapting Russian Technologies of Power: On Administrative Documents for the History of Land-and-Water Reform in the Uzbek SSR (1924-1929)," Revolutionary Russia 25, 1 (2012): 187-217.
This image was taken by MP Price during an expedition to Siberia, Mongolia, western China, Russian Turkestan
, Armenia and the Trans Caucasus between April 1910 and March 1911.
In the middle of the 1870s the first excavations in Russian Turkestan
began, which were carried out by dilettanti, who were often military men.
In 1863 the Russian Empire created two administrative districts in Central Asia: the General-Governorship of Russian Turkestan
, which included southern Kazakhstan, with its capital in Tashkent, and the Steppe Region [Stepnoy Kray] with its capital in Omsk, which included the lands of Siberian and Semirechensk Cossack Hosts in the modern North Kazakhstan.
They focused on educating women and reformed Islamic marriage and divorce laws in order to regenerate the millat, or the "nation" of Islamic people in Russian Turkestan
, the Central Asian lslamic region of the old Russian empire.
Born in Kabul (1844), the third son of Afzal Khan and the grandson of Dost Mohammed Khan; supported his father's and uncle's rebellion against his younger uncle Shere Ali Khan after Dost Mohammed's death (1863); fled to Russian Turkestan
after Shere Ali's victory (1870); welcomed by the governor there, he stayed and studied the Russian administration; returned to Afghanistan to become emir at the end of the Second Afghan War (1880); proclaimed emir in Kabul (July 22, 1880) to great popular acclaim; pacified the country and forcefully reestablished his authority; negotiated permanent boundary lines with Russia (1887) and with British India (1893); died in Kabul (October 1, 1901).