Essentially, Mughals and Safavids
had replaced Romans-Byzantines and Sasanians as the "two eyes" of the Earth through which "humanity's course is constantly regulated and guided," according to words ascribed to shahanshah Khusro II's correspondence with Emperor Maurice in the late sixth century.
This entanglement resulted in particular from: the Ottomans~ concomitant competition with the Safavids
, Habsburgs, and Venetians, and the shared political theologies this entailed; the spread of various Muslim and Christian communities across imperial borders; and the Ottomans~ permissiveness towards Catholic, Lutheran and Calvinist missionary activities among the Empire~s (mostly Orthodox) Christians.
sought to distance themselves from the powerful Sunni Ottoman Empire and refashioned Iran into the preeminent Shiite power (Iran became an officially Shiite country in 1502).
Summary: A Turkish diplomat in Tehran once told me the ambassador's residence had several centuries earlier been a dowry gift of a princess in a dynastic marriage linking the Ottomans and Safavids
, especially Ismail, a good motivating power, legitimacy and mobilization of the Shia were found.
Imams hit back in their Friday sermons, refusing to keep silent "while our brothers suffer genocide in Iraq at the hand of the Safavids
and allied militias", according to our sister paper Akhbar Al Khaleej.
There are some figures who are still interpreting developments through the clash between Ottomans and Safavids
In 2013 the Institute launched a new MA in Art History, Persian Painting and Transcultural Visuality: from the Mongols to the Safavids
, taught by Dr Sussan Babaie.
They consider languages, concepts and symbols; post-Mongol tendencies: mysticism, messianism, and universalism; and from mysticism and messsianism to charismatic kingship: Ottomans, Safavids
, and Mughals.
A CHRONICLE OF THE CARMELITES IN PERSIA: THE SAFAVIDS
AND THE PAPAL MISSION OF THE 17TH AND 18TH CENTURIES.
It only described the targets as "official and security and military places, and the places of the Rafidhiyah and the head of the Safavids
," another negative term for Iraq's Shiite majority.
The exhibition features 37 historical objects from the MIA's collection -- artifacts from four dynasties with connections to Afghanistan: the Ghaznavids (977-1186 CE), the Timurids (1370-1506 CE), the Mughals (1526-1857 CE), and the Safavids
(1501-1722 CE), and 37 contemporary pieces created specially for the show by TMI students, who drew inspiration from the former.