cereus are classified as saprobes
(PERES-NETO & ZAPPA, 2011), and characterized as probiotics (TURNES, 1999), some strains may be associated with the occurrence of food-borne disease outbreaks in humans (DHAMA et al.
Study of endophytic Xylariaceae in Thailand: diversity and taxonomy inferred from rDNA sequence analyses with saprobes
forming fruit bodies in the field.
Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi, and most of Fusarium species are harmless saprobes
and relatively abundant members of the soil microbial community (Alazem, 2007; Summerell et al.
Fungi comprehend a heterogeneous group of heterotrophic microorganisms that act as saprobes
or parasites or, less frequently, as symbionts (Gomes et al.
Some of the ecological characteristics of the species were surveyed; it was found that the trophic group of the saprobes
is the most diverse, while decaying wood is the substrate where most of the species were found.
2007) suggested that under certain conditions, some ECM fungal symbionts behave as saprobes
, using litter and soil organic matter as substrates and providing the host trees with carbon at time when demand is high and photoassimilates are not yet available.
Weeds, weed residues, cover crops and green manures increase the organic residue in the soil, and pathogens such as Fusarium and Pythium species can survive in soil as facultative saprobes
on these simple organic substrates when plant hosts are absent.
Fungi in the phylum Chytridiomycota have a nearly global distribution and occupy roles as heterotrophs and saprobes
in water and soil (32).
Chomczynska M, Montusiewicz A, Malicki J, Lagod G (2009) Application of saprobes
for bioindication of wastewater quality.
2011) and are essential components of the microbial food webs as saprobes
decomposing plant and animal substrates, parasites of algae, macrophytes, crustaceans, fishes, amphibians, invertebrates and protists, and as food resources for consumers such as metazoan zooplankton (Niquil et al.
Otomycosis is sporadic and caused by a wide variety of fungi, most of which are saprobes
occurring in diverse types of environmental material.
Normally, the fugal strains that produce AF reside in soil as saprobes
, but can be transmitted to plant tissues when conditions are favorable (Gourama and Bullerman, 1995).