9) Here, "orthodox" is used to denote those in the Reformed Tradition who specifically set themselves against Arminians, Socinians
, Catholics, and Quakers.
38) For example, the sixteenth-century Socinians
, the seventeenth-century sect of the "gospel of gratuitous salvation," the Jehovah's Witnesses, Friedrich Schleiermacher, the English theologian F.
This shrewd polemic maneuver allowed Independent theologians such as John Owen to elide their Presbyterian enemies, who did not want Charles executed, with the feared and hated Socinians
, for the most notorious Socinian
tenet was indeed that it made no sense to claim that an omnipotent God was somehow forced to exact vengeance on man, let alone on himself.
2) We might then wonder if there is a relation between Leibniz's attitude to Newton on the issue of space and time on the one hand, and his relation to the Socinians
on the trinity, on the other.
Although a constant presence in the early-modern age, Mortimer argues that Socinians
have not received the scholarly attention they deserve and that "Socinianism needs to be integrated into the broader political and religious landscape of the period, for only then can the real importance of Socinian
ideas be understood" (pp.
While Hobbes outwardly adopts all kinds of things from the Socinians
, his "critique of the tradition .
They were the major but not the only religious dissenters tolerated in regions of Germany--Schwenckfelders were present in Silesia from the early years of the Reformation; in the seventeenth century Quakers and Socinians
appeared particularly on the fringes of Anabaptist congregations to which they had a certain appeal, and complicated the relations of Anabaptists and governments; later on Pietist conventicles challenged Protestant Orthodoxy, attracted Anabaptists and Anabaptist sympathizers, and often disturbed ad hoc arrangements that governments had made to tolerate Anabaptists.
2) For the Socinians
(Faustus Socinius, 1539-1604) and other anti-trinitarian humanists, the complex of ideas that speaks of the work of Christ in terms of satisfaction made invalid the gospel of love and divine forgiveness.
Similarly, in 1598, two Socinians
(anti-Trinitarians) who came from Rakow (Poland) to bring newly published theological works to Polish students at Leiden found their books immediately seized and burned and themselves banished.
He is not himself Socinian
nor is his epic, but Stoll shows that just as Socinians
were prime advocates of the toleration of religions, so the epic pictures a tolerationist Christ that in this aspect is a mirror of the heresy.
The poem's menagerie also includes the Presbyterian Wolf; Baptist Boar; Bloody Bear (here Dryden appropriates the adjective often applied to Mary Tudor), symbol of the independent Congregational churches; Quaking Hare; Buffoon Ape, the atheist who apes the religious to mask his intrigues; and the Fox, who represents those who deny the incarnation of God in Christ, including Deists, Socinians
, and other adherents of natural religion and "rationalist" opponents of revealed religion.
It wa allowed to be used by the Longwood Mechanics Institute as a day school and venue for preaching for all denomination of Christians - except Catholics, Mormons, Unitarians and Socinians