Besides the destruction of wetland ecosystems, the indiscriminate dumping of household wastes in nearby wetlands flowing into Darkside of Paradise Cave, poaching of bats in Bat Cave and Crystal Cave, and the degradation of speleothems
(blackening) due to irresponsible human activities in Crystal Caves were reported by the DENR Western Visayas.
The fieldwork will also include the collection of speleothems
(mineral deposits) from caves in the area.
2017b) reported botryoidal calcite speleothems
associated with pyrite and abundant bladed-euhedral barite in small-scale fracture-controlled cave systems in Silurian Aeronian carbonate rocks exposed in Kalana quarry, Central Estonia.
(stalactites and stalagmites) are formed when rainwater enters the cave after passing through plant debris and carbonate bedrock (limestone).
In the walls and speleothems
surrounding these deposits, there are traces of red and black paintings, of which the only distinguishable motif is an anthropomorphic motif.
Experimental natural philosopher, Adam Walker wrote how pouring acid onto limestone caused a chemical reaction, "the effervescence was excessive strong," and he made an early suggestion as to the formation of speleothems
, arguing that the rain soaked through the overlying earth and oozed through cracks in the limestone "imbibing or dissolving fine particles in their descent" leaving the "stony particle" in place as the water enters the cave.
2004, Influence of solar luminosity over geomagnetic and climatic cycles as derived from speleothems
The predominantly face and eye motifs pecked into the speleothems
of the latter cave share striking similarities with other early sites, such as Cueva de Berna, on the western side of the Mona Passage in the Dominican Republic (Lopez Belando 2003; Veloz Maggiolo et al.
The team reconstructed a rainfall record stretching back 450 years from unprecedented speleothem
samples from Yok Balum cave in Belize using uranium thorium dating from the chemical composition in the speleothems
containing aragonite, which is high in uranium.
They utilized proxy data taken from tree rings, ice cores, corals, speleothems
, and sediments in a number of places in the North Atlantic region to tease out evidence of 450 years' worth of solar energy and volcanic information.
Mineral deposits in water dripping from the roof of the limestone cave splashed onto the cave floor, and mist from those drip water impacts formed delicate rosette-looking speleothems
(cave formations) that the divers called 'florets.
The topics include principles and practices of constructing wavelets, the genesis of wavelet transform types and applications, fractals and wavelets in applied geophysics with some examples, applying wavelet transforms to paleo-monsoon data from Speleothems
, and Fourier and wavelet implementations in the phase-field modeling of the evolution of solid-solid and solid-liquid boundaries.