spina

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spina

(ˈspaɪnə)
n
(Anatomy) anatomy the spine
Translations

spi·na

n. spina, espina.
1. protuberancia en forma de espina;
2. la espina o columna vertebral.
References in periodicals archive ?
A change in lumbar curvature can alter fascicle obliquity, lever arm distance, and the length-tension relationships of the erector spinae (McGill et al 2000, Raschke and Chaffin 1996, Singh et al 2011, Tveit et al 1994).
Hence, the aim of this clinical commentary is to discuss some of the biomechanical principles associated with lumbar posture, spinal loading, and erector spinae muscle activity and highlight the implications for the education and the rehabilitation of those involved in manual handling activities.
Studies that have simulated repeated loading at end range of lumbar flexion have found an attenuation of the erector spinae reflex response to aid spinal stabilisation and an increase in spinal ligament and intervertebral disc creep (Adams and Dolan 1996, Solomonow 2012, Solomonow et al 1999).
The influence of lumbar posture on erector spinae geometry
The major trunk muscles responsible for resisting and controlling the bending moment and anterior shear forces acting on the lumbar spine when lifting and lowering are the erector spinae (Macintosh and Bogduk 1986, McGill et al 1988).
The upper erector spinae consist of the thoracic fibres of iliocostalis lumborum and longissimus thoracis.
The local subgroup of the erector spinae are those muscles whose fascicles originate and insert on the vertebrae of the lumbar spine and pelvis (Bergmark 1989).
Another key muscle of the local erector spinae is multifidus.
The transition from a lordotic lumbar posture to a fully flexed lumbar spine alters the geometry of the upper erector spinae and lumbar erector spinae, potentially reducing their ability to generate extensor torque and resist anterior shear (Figure 2).
Although increased lumbar flexion alters the geometry of the erector spinae in a way that can potentially compromise its ability to generate an extension moment and resist anterior shear, authors who have investigated back extensor torque in static lumbar postures have found increases in torque as the spine becomes more flexed.