That shows attendance by top leaders is down by almost half from previous NAM summist
Phrases are taken randomly, not just from the responsio--as with the summist
of the previous century, Vincent of Beauvais--but also from the prefatory quaestio and the arguments "for and against" (ad .
9) See Jonsen and Toulmin, "High Casuistry: Summists
and Jesuits," in The Abuse of Casuistry (1989), 139-51, where the authors chronicle the zenith of european casuistry under the Jesuits.
The early penitentials come out of a monastic context, the summists are, with some exceptions, either Franciscans or Dominicans, persons closer to the laity.
123) By no means is Alan the most legal of summists.
Guided by Aquinas, and relying heavily on John of Freiburg, Antoninus drew on a wide array of canonists and summists
, through them appreciated the classics, and took into account contemporary writers ranging from Catherine of Siena and Lorenzo Ridolfi to Petrarch and Bruni.