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a.1.(Anat.) Situated above the vertebral column.
References in periodicals archive ?
Evidence for a supraspinal contribution to human muscle fatigue.
Liu and colleagues found that electroacupuncture could activate serotonergic raphe-spinal neurons in the nucleus raphe magnus, a supraspinal area mediating a negative feedback circuit of pain modulation, thereby inducing analgesia via descending inhibition.
14] The spinal mechanism is considered to be mainly responsible for the analgesic effects though there is some evidence of both the supraspinal and peripheral sites of action of dexmedetomidine.
All these components have since been mapped throughout the peripheral nerve terminals and extend up to the supraspinal centers, which constitute the pain (nociceptive) pathway (3).
It results in increased morbidity and mortality, but the instability is directly related to the type and degree of the injury, maintaining parasympathetic input to the heart intact while the spinal sympathetic system loses supraspinal autonomic control.
The research was performed in the Day Care Centre "Retirees Club" of Bacau, between December 2015 and June 2016, where I draw up the medical files of the patients that includes the Anamnesis, the Initial and Final Evaluations, and, respectively, the Arthric report, the Muscle report, the specific Functional tests (Neertest--that tests an overuse-type trauma at supraspinal level, fact that may also be observed on the patient's face, the Test of the Painful Arch--that identifies the conflict between the thews of the rotator and acromion muscles and consists of the slow arm abduction.
6] The spread of fentanyl after administration into cerebrospinal fluid include movement from the cerebrospinal fluid into the opioid receptors or other non-specific binding sites in the spinal cord [7] and rostral migration via the cerebrospinal fluid to supraspinal sites.
Both supraspinal and spinal output could be affected by neuromuscular rolling.
Hyperstimulation analgesia and analgesia via application of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), in addition to the already mentioned mechanisams of action, also act at supraspinal level, inhibiting the pain transfer up to conscious level at the somatosensory cerebral cortex [10, 11].
Spinal and supraspinal factors in human muscle fatigue.
The anatomical sites of participants were marked as acromial, radiale, mid acromial-radiale, subscapular, stylion, mid-stylion, mesosternal, ill-crystal, illospinale, supraspinal, trochanterion, mid trochanterion-tibial lateral, mid-thigh, tibial lateral, tibial medial and sphyrion.