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In the section concerning dharma and adharma, Khandadeva (5) remarks that the Syena rite nevertheless has the property of being a dharma, since the Veda conveys that it is the means to a desired end; being the cause producing an unacceptable result pertains only to the result of performing this rite--namely causing harm by acts such as striking with a weapon, leading to the death of an enemy--that has the property of being adharma, since it is possessed of the property of being a means to an unacceptable end, as made known by the Veda: syene cestasadhanatayd eva vedabodhitatvad dharmatvam eva I anistajanakatvam tu syenaphalasya vairimarananukulasastraghatadirupahimsatma-kabhicarasyaiva I tasyaiva ca vedabodhitdnistasddhanakatvad adharmatvam na tu syenasya.
While reading in the library, Eratosthenes had come across an account claiming that on the day of the summer solstice in Syene known today as Aswan the sun was reflected perfectly and in its entirety, deep in the earth at the bottom of a well, without so much as casting a single shadow on the walls of the structure.
He knew that Egypt was an important source (among others) of precious stones (but not specifically of emeralds) and he even specifies Syene and 'the region called Psepho' as the area most closely associated with them ([section]34).
My approach focuses on one episode of the Aethiopica which best corresponds to a recognizable scene-type within historiography, namely the siege of Syene in Book 9.
He observed that in Syene, on the longest day of the year, columns cast no shadows when the sun was directly overhead.
33) "The theory here proposed assumes that the Jews and Aramaeans of the colonies at Elephantine and Syene originated predominantly from Northern Israel.
The table comparing the Eratosthenes map parallel values of Alexandria, Syene (Aswan), Babylon and Meroe with parallel values of present settlements proves the differences to be minor and the measurements, conducted by Eratosthenes at that time, are sufficiently precise (see Table 1).
lt;<Ad ogni modo, quando Gallo era prefetto dell'Egitto, lo accompagnai risalendo il Nilo fino a Syene ed alle frontiere dell'Etiopia, ed appresi che 120 vascelli stavano salpando da Myos Hormos verso l'India, quando in precedenza, sotto i Tolomei, solo in pochi si avventuravano nel viaggio intrattenendo commerci con l'India>>.
He knew that on a particular date, the Sun crossed the zenith as seen from the town of Syene (now Aswan) in Egypt; people there could see the Sun shining straight down deep wells at noon.
Perched on the banks of the Nile, Aswan, the site of the ancient city of Syene, boasts some of the country's top ancient Egyptian treasures.
When Eratosthenes of Alexandria stood in the noonday sun at Syene, near the Tropic of Cancer, on the day of the summer solstice in 240 BC and (so the pared-down version of the story goes) observed no shadow, he made one of the world's great scientific conclusions.
As the basis, he assumed the angular difference in the angles under which the sun rays fall on the Earth's surface in Alexandria and Syene and he accepted an idealizing assumption that the sun rays falling on different spots of the Earth's surface (their latitude notwithstanding) were perfectly parallel to each other.
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