intelligence assessments saying the test released 140 kilotons of TNT equivalent
, making it larger in explosive yield than the previous five tests combined.
Luccioni and her colleague Daniel Ambrosini concluded that a bomb carrying between 2,500 to 3,000 kilograms of TNT equivalent
that was elevated 50 to 80 centimeters above the ground was responsible for the huge explosion.
The bomb, measured at about 500-600 grams of TNT equivalent
and filled with metal dowels that inflicted numerous injuries on the passengers, was detonated by 30-year-old suicide bomber Naida Asiyalova, a native of Russia's southern republic of Dagestan, Investigative Committee spokesman Vladimir Markin said.
The scientist analyzed data showing the presence of radioisotopes that indicated a uranium bomb had exploded and after a year of work, wrote Nature, "concluded that North Korea carried out two small nuclear tests in April and May 2010 that caused explosions in the range of 50--200 tons of TNT equivalent