Toll-like receptor


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Toll-like receptor

(tōl′līk′)
n.
Any of a class of proteins that are located within membranes, often on the cell surface, and are an important part of the innate immune system. Toll-like receptors recognize and bind to pathogens or to fragments resulting from cell damage and then activate biochemical pathways that generate an immune response.

[From Toll, the name of a gene in drosophila fruit flies that when mutated affects embryonic development and the innate immune system, from German toll, amazing, great, cool (in Das is ja toll!, That's really cool!, exclamation of German biologist Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard upon observing in 1985 that mutations in a particular gene caused ventral underdevelopment in drosophila, a discovery that eventually led to the identification of Toll-like receptors), from Middle High German tol, foolish, crazy, good-looking, from Old High German, foolish; akin to Old English dol, dull, from Germanic *dula-, dumbfounded, stupefied.]
References in periodicals archive ?
Messenger RNA levels of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) (A), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88) (B), interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) (C), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) (D), and nuclear factor B (NF-[kappa]B) (E) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB)-infected patients and healthy controls.
Title: Novel Toll-Like Receptor Antagonists Strongly Decrease Expression of IL-23-induced and Psoriasis Profile Genes in a Mouse Model
The receptors, or sensors, on cells are called Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and the Nobel Prize was awarded last year for discoveries that showed they initiate the swift innate immune response to infections.
They then tested the impact this variant had on retinal pigment epithelial cells in humans and in mice, including wild-type and toll-like receptor 3 knockout animals.
Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 in human peripheral blood granulocytes: a critical role for monocytes in leukocyte lipopolysaccharide responses.
In the new study, the scientists gave a single shot of alcohol to laboratory mice and studied the effect of blocking Toll-like receptors, a particular element of the immune system, on the behavioural changes induced by alcohol.
Rapid and reliable genotyping for the Toll-like receptor 4 A896G polymorphism using fluorescence-labeled hybridization probes in a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.
and her colleagues conducted a series of experiments on mice and rats to clarify the role in neuropathic pain of a cell-surface protein dubbed TLR4, short for toll-like receptor 4.
TLR4 is a well characterized toll-like receptor with extensive publications outlining its role as a key mediator of acute and chronic inflammation.
a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company committed to the development and commercialization of novel Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) immunotherapies, today announced an update on corporate and clinical activities at the company including management structure, commitment for future funding, ongoing clinical trials and future clinical development efforts.
IL-12 receptor beta 1 and Toll-like receptor 4 increase IL-1 beta- and IL-18-associated myocarditis and coxsackievirus replication.
Toll-like receptor 2 functions as a pattern recognition receptor for diverse bacterial products.