Toll-like receptor


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Toll-like receptor

(tōl′līk′)
n.
Any of a class of proteins that are located within membranes, often on the cell surface, and are an important part of the innate immune system. Toll-like receptors recognize and bind to pathogens or to fragments resulting from cell damage and then activate biochemical pathways that generate an immune response.

[From Toll, the name of a gene in drosophila fruit flies that when mutated affects embryonic development and the innate immune system, from German toll, amazing, great, cool (in Das is ja toll!, That's really cool!, exclamation of German biologist Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard upon observing in 1985 that mutations in a particular gene caused ventral underdevelopment in drosophila, a discovery that eventually led to the identification of Toll-like receptors), from Middle High German tol, foolish, crazy, good-looking, from Old High German, foolish; akin to Old English dol, dull, from Germanic *dula-, dumbfounded, stupefied.]
References in periodicals archive ?
TNF-alpha induction by Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide or slime-glycolipoprotein in human monocytes is regulated at the level of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase activity: a distinct role of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4.
The 412Phe variant in the gene for toll-like receptor 3 appears to protect against advanced "dry" age-related macular degeneration (AMD), also known as geographic atrophy, new research suggests.
Novimmune SA (Geneve, Switzerland) has patented monoclonal antibodies that recognize the Toll-like Receptor 4/MD-2 receptor complex, and monoclonal antibodies that recognize the TLR4/MD2 complex as well as TLR4 when not complexed with MD-2.
A Toll-like receptor 4 agonist with a property to stimulate the body's immune system, E6020 is compatible with a variety of vaccines and is expected to enhance the effectiveness of vaccines.
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is the principal receptor for bacterial endotoxin recognition, and functional variants in the gene confer endotoxin hyporesponsiveness in humans (1).
Recent research has indicated that it stimulates the Toll-like receptor 2, also known as a pattern recognition receptor, present on macrophages that normally enables the cell to recognize invading pathogens, according to the article.
Biofilm formation and Toll-like receptor 2, Toll-like receptor 4, and NF-kappaB expression in sinus tissues of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.
Medications targeting Toll-like receptor 4 may prove beneficial in treating alcohol dependence and acute overdoses," said lead researcher Dr Mark Hutchinson from the University's School of Medical Sciences.
The toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 Asp299G1y polymorphism is associated with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
TAK-242 is a compound that suppresses the production of inflammatory mediators including cytokine by the signal transduction mediated by Toll-like receptor (TLR4).
and her colleagues conducted a series of experiments on mice and rats to clarify the role in neuropathic pain of a cell-surface protein dubbed TLR4, short for toll-like receptor 4.