For example, in the chapter on siege warfare and siege artillery, the author uses Western developments such as Geoffrey Parker's thesis on the primacy of the trace italienne
style of European fortifications as the primary comparative tool in analyzing the Asian military systems.
For instance, they offer much information on the social cost of implementing a scheme of trace italienne
New ballistic technology and an increasing sophistication in the laying out of fortifications, loosely known as trace italienne
, produced fortresses characterised by low, immensely thick walls interspersed with bastions and other outworks to provide covering fire and to make the advance of a besieging army more difficult and dangerous.
He is particularly critical of Geoffrey Parker, who sees the trace italienne
as the trigger mechanism which is alleged to have forced up army sizes with radical overall consequences for both the military and society at large.