pension plan is allowed to fail, not only will they no longer be able to pay promised benefits, but taxpayers would be at risk of having to pay billions because the Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation (PBGC) would be on the hook for billions of dollars it cannot pay.
Although it operated as a centralized conglomerate, Massey insisted on treating its subsidiaries as independent companies, in order to force the UMWA
to go through the laborious process of negotiating with each of them.
But as Munsell points out, Osgood did eventually recognize the UMWA
By August, she had not only convinced the Cabin Creek miners to join their brothers on Paint Creek, but also got many of the non-union Cabin Creek workers to join the UMWA
In 1982, he was appointed Administrator of the UMWA
Occupational Health and Safety Department, a position he held for 22 years.
Though the strike ended with a settlement agreed to by the union, the results of the strike were ultimately detrimental to the UMWA
Leaders of the UMWA
used words and images to define their objectives within the confines of existing law.
Lewis sent hundreds of UMWA
organisers to help create some of the nation's leading labour unions, including the United Steelworkers of America, the United Auto Workers (UAW), the Communication Workers of America (CWA) and many other important labour organisations that continue to speak on behalf of America's workers.
Long one of the nation's most powerful unions, the UMWA
also had an ignoble history of ferocious factional fighting.
But the UMWA
says this move would be inadequate unless the number of federal inspectors was significantly increased.
After he became an activist in the Miners for Democracy reform movement and was elected president of the United Mine Workers of America in 1982, he served three terms as president of the UMWA
before being elected the youngest secretary-treasurer in AFL-CIO history.
Anthracite operators responded to the call by stating that historically they negotiated pay rates directly with their workers, which they felt in part justified their refusal to acknowledge the UMWA
as the bargaining agent for them.