However, the expression of alternative oxidases and NADH dehydrogenases from urochordates
and fungi in mammalian cultured cells and in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be benign and to counteract deleterious effects of defective OXPHOS systems, inspiring therapeutic possibilities for mitochondrial and related diseases.
55) The most primitive group of chordates are the urochordates
, or tunicates, that have a sack-like adult body that filters seawater through pharyngeal slits.
have short generation times, and the importance of these animals as contributor s to the high productivity in reef areas has been recognized.
and the origin of natural killer cells: Identification of a CD94/NKR-P1-related receptor in blood cells of Botryllus.
Although snappers throughout the world are generally thought of as top level carnivores, several snapper species in the Pacific are known to incorporate significant amounts of zooplankton, often gelatinous urochordates
, in their diets (Parrish, 1987).
are monophyletic within the deuterostomes.
Ascidians are members of the subphylum urochordates
, which is a group of the phylum chordates along with cephalochordates and vertebrates (Satoh, 2003).
Originally identified in mammalian tissues, NO has been identified in the signaling cascades of many invertebrates such as coelenterates, platyhelminths, nematodes, annelids, molluscs, arthropods, echinoderms, and urochordates
(Martinez, 1995; Midler, 1997).
The pelagobenthic life cycle is by far the most common life cycle in the ocean, and is shared by almost all marine invertebrate phyla, from sponges to echinoderms and urochordates
1 A), and both phyla make up the sister group of the chordate phylum, which includes urochordates
, cephalochordates, and vertebrates (Castresana et al.
In contrast to urochordates
, cephalochordates have retained many features of the basal chordate body plan and are likely to approximate the ancestor of both urochordates
In most urochordates
the larva has a chordate body plan with a trunk or head region and a motile tail containing a notochord and a dorsal nerve cord (Katz, 1983; Meinertzhagen and Okamura, 2001).