The hyoid apparatus of the Chinese goose is composed of a single entoglossal bone, paired rostral basibranchial bones, an urohyal bone, paired ceratobranchial bones, and paired epibranchial bones.
The entoglossal bone of a Chinese goose has a continuation as cartilage reaching as far as half of the apex length (11) and the length of the urohyal bone is as long as the basibranchial bone.
Many structures have been used to estimate the age of fishes, including scales, otoliths, vertebrae, fin rays and spines, opercular bones, cleithra, urohyal
bone, and hyomandibular bone.
26] Anterior process of urohyal (Costa 1998a) (CI: 1.
28] Dorsal process of urohyal length (Costa 1998a) (CI: 0.
Davis and West (1992) used ANOVA to show that there were differences in the marginal increment of urohyal
bones of L.
anteromedial tip of mandible at tooth row; 3, anterior most point on urohyal
at midline; 4, anteromedial margin of cleithrum; 5, lateral tip of maxilla; 6, ventrolateral process of mandible (anguloarticular bone) for insertion of mandibulohyoid ligament; 7, dorsolateral process of anterohyal for insertion of mandibulohyoid ligament; 8, tip of posterior cleithral process.
Additionally to the above the genus Papiliolebias is characterized by: urohyal
, dorsal process branched (also in some species of Pituna); third epibranchial, uncinate process, forming an angle of 45-60[degrees] with distal process (also in rivulines but not in plesiolebi-asines); posttemporal, ventral process present; opercular region with regular reticulate pattern formed by iridescent colour on middle of scales contrasting with dark orangish brown pigment along entire scale margins (also in Pituna); and humeral region with iridescent blotch (also in Pituna) (Costa 2011).
Peculiar articulation between prominent anteromesial process of anterior ceratohyal and broad, deep, circular concavity formed by the lateral margins of both urohyal
with bilateral posterodorsal processes and median posteroventral process.
9); ventral hypohyals, dorsal hypohyals and urohyal
extremely thin; basibranchials 2, 3 ossified; basibranchial 4 either absent, unstained or too small to discern; hyobranchials 1, 2, and 3 cartilaginous; ceratobranchials 1, 2, 3, 4 cartilaginous at tips; ceratobranchial 5 completely cartilaginous and fused with lower pharyngeal plate; lower pharyngeal plate ossified, possessing large conical teeth with slightly recurved tips.
3); one pair of slender uroneurals; three epurals; a free parhypural; three thin supraneurals, generally straight; two supernumerary spines on first dorsal pterygiophore; no procumbent spines (spurs); thin Y-shaped basisphenoid, free from parasphenoid and prootics; neurocranium with frontal tabs similar to Vincentia Castelnau, 1872 (Fraser 1972: pl 31); supramaxilla absent; posttemporal smooth or with 1-3 small serrae on posterior margin; preopercle with 2-3 small, widely spaced serrae near angle, ridge smooth; infraorbitals smooth; infraorbital shelf present on third bone; ring of scleral cartilage, no ossification present; 7 branchiostegals; ceratohyal notched, suture smooth with epihyal; urohyal
with short anterior process.