of production, a key component of the Ujamaa plan, essentially collectivized all forms of local productive capacity.
Kjekshus (1977) demonstrated, though historical analysis and arguments of rural planning, the centrality of the Ujamaa policy, and its villagization
component, to the Tanzanian development strategy.
That is why the Government has introduced a villagization
program in the repatriation and reintegration in Burundi as emergency response d- the reintegration of persons affected by the crisis for which a single d- Setup in a dispersed rural settlement would be impossible .
Many African civilians were killed, a program of villagization
(in so-called "aldeamentos") was introduced to concentrate the survivors along roads accessible to police and military vehicles, and the majority of the region's inhabitants fled to already-independent Congo.
In both Mozambique's RENAMO war and Ethiopia's Derg war, significant grievances surfaced as a result of government villagization
219) Additionally, Rwanda's villagization
program has relocated hundreds of thousands of people into new villages from hillside farms.
President Julius Nyerere, 'father' and philosopher of Tanzanian socialism, justified villagization
on the grounds of being better able to provide basic services, such as medical clinics, schools, and clean water, to the citizenry.
Reorganization of property Tanzania, 1961-73 Gradual rights by fiat and forced villagization
under pressure from socialist ideals 5.
Just think of the Great Leap Forward in China, agricultural collectivization in Russia, or compulsory villagization
in Tanzania, Mozambique and Ethiopia.
The African American experience of nearly three and one-half centuries of racial slavery and segregation is paralleled by Oromos suffering under Ethiopian settler colonialism, which practiced slavery, semi-slavery (the naftanya-gabbar system), tenancy and share cropping, forced villagization
, and collectivization for just over a century (see Jalata, 1993).
It involved enforced villagization
and stock reduction through the manipulation of tribal authorities and even the use of the armed forces.
It may well have been the poorer for decades of British and German colonial rule, but its disparate ethical groups and local communities were hardly prostrate when villagization
began--a point Scott convincingly demonstrates.