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Mephistopheles is associated with the Vulcanist geology that Goethe found uncongenial.
the World, as we Know 't," which begins with an inspired opening line: "The neptunists and vulcanists were going at it hammer and tongs.
Vulcanists, Neptunists, and racists (such as Gobineau, Cuvier, and Renan, who created hierarchies of civilizations based on skin color) aroused Flaubert's skepticism, more baldly displayed in Bouvard et Pecuchet.