It would thus appear that Kyiv's single-minded turn towards Europe accelerated Moscow's flight from what generations of Russian intellectuals considered--albeit for different reasons--the center of their own civilization: while the Westernizers
were captivated by powerful examples of Europe's social progress, the Slavophiles (such as Alexei Khomyakov and later Fyodor Dostoyevsky) spoke fondly of Europe as the "land of sacred miracles.
The behavior and appearance of Afghan women is regarded by both westernizers
and traditionalists as a litmus test of the social health of the nation.
In India, the active presence of the followers of the Enlightenment, the Westernizers
, and the Evangelicals resulted in the rise of a pluralistic discursive field, where modernist Muslim scholars faced a multiplicity of issues (MOADDEL 2001).
They both wanted a strong centralized state, they were Westernizers
and secularists," Bakhash said.
As a result of all the above, the present Islamic World is in turmoil, Sunni versus Shiite, secular versus religious, freedom seekers versus totalitarians, Westernizers
This is seen in many of the complaints from Southern policymakers and civil society leaders: that Northern NGOs are Westernizers
or agents of cultural imperialism, applying a one-size-fits-all vision of development, environmental conservation, or human rights that fails to take into account local conditions.
It is better to risk being consigned by critics to the 'hell' reserved for alleged Westernizers
and imperialists," she wrote in "Sex and Social Justice," "than to stand around in the vestibule waiting for a time when everyone will like what we are going to say.
Further chapters deal with the attitude of the other political currents in existence in this period: the "liberal Westernizers
," the "Marxists," and the "Nationalists.
The new political thinking of Gorbachev and later on Yeltsin and other westernizers
played a very important role in overcoming the Leninist/Stalinist legacy of the Soviet Union's foreign policy and convincing the West that a real change in relations with Russia was possible.
In 1912, an articulate and extreme group of westernizers
called Garbcilar published a westernization manifesto, of which one point addressed the matter of proper headgear.
When Dostoevsky spoke at the Pushkin gathering organized by the Society of Lovers of Russian Literature, he aspired to redefine not so much Pushkin as the idea of Russian nationhood, which had for decades stirred contention between Slavophiles and Westernizers
Modern Iranian history has been a competition between Westernizers
and Islamic Clergy.