For a complete discussion of the 1908 journey, see Jess Olson, Nathan Birnbaum: Architect of Zionism, Yiddishism
and Orthodoxy (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2003), 164-184.
The first two, Elias Tcherikower and Yisroel Efroikin, were former socialist activists who had turned to the secular cultural and linguistic movement Yiddishism
in later years, with both serving as coeditors of the Yiddish journal Oyfn sheydveg.
Gordin's version is obviously more hopeful than Shakespeare's, but, since it was directed to an immigrant audience, this change was essential for success: it is reassuring both morally and collectively as it enacts the value of secular Yiddishism
25) Is "kosher," for instance, even a Yiddishism
Nathan Birnbaum and Jewish modernity; architect of Zionism, Yiddishism
, and Orthodoxy.
No writer, like the subject of this study, has so reflected the typical and changing condition of the Jew in the current era, from the Polish Jewish heartland to present-day New York, taking in and assessing the multifarious ideologies of Yiddishism
, socialism, assimilation, and Zionism.
Louis Miller and Di Warheit ("The Truth"); Yiddishism
, Zionism and Socialism in New York, 1905-1915.
Many of the frequent visitors to Nachman and Bassya's informal center for heated discourse were famous writers and important political leaders such as Baruch Zuckerman, one of the founders of the American Po'alei Zion party who had joined the Territorialists in 1905, or Chaim Zhitlowsky, the brilliant and urbane theoretician of Yiddishism
and Diaspora nationalism who often differed hotly with Syrkin over political opinions.
Her topics are Yiddishism
and its discontents, anti-Yiddishism
and the Erlikhe Yidn in the United Kingdom, complexity and contradiction in American Yiddishland, and Yiddishism
or Yidishkayt: whether Yiddish can revive in Germany.
The cultural secularist model, which I'll call Yiddishism
, on the other hand, locates the conservatism of traditional Judaism in the religion.
Wells, Carlos Bulosan, Vine Deloria, Teofila Samolinska, Anna Julia Cooper, Ernesto Galarza, and Patrick Ford; from the pluralist integrity of Hayim Zhitlovsky's Yiddishism
to Du Bois' sorrow songs; from the recovery of Yiddishkayt to the related recovery projects of ethnic studies broadly conceived: forgotten texts like John Okada's No-No Boy, and repressed elements of the nation's history, such as the racially derived naturalization law of 1790, the Trail of Tears, Guadalupe-Hidalgo, the Black Codes, or the Chinese Exclusion Act.
Whether defined positively (queer Yiddishism
, socialist Jewish past, serious approach to the music) or negatively (no nostalgia, no "tourism of the past," no cuteness, no apologetics, no fetishizing of authenticity), "the identity music of Jewish American youth" envisioned by Svigals articulates distinctive sensibilities and their sounds.