Meulenbeld uses the Red Bandanas and the White Lotus as examples to illustrate how the Yuan empire did not tap into the spiritual power of the liturgical network, but had to suppress that system, which was utilized by local uprising martial heroes.
The Ming in fact ruled China for just under 300 years, from 1368 to 1644--that is from the end of the Mongol Yuan empire to the start of the Qing dynasty, or, in Western terms, from the age of Chaucer to the English Civil War.
For example, the official spoken language variety of the Chinese sovereignty has been the same Beijing dialect of the Yan regional lect of the Chinese language since the Qing Empire (1644~1912); the capital of the Chinese sovereignty has been the same Beijing since the Yuan Empire (1276~1368) [excluding the periods of the early Ming Empire (1368~1421) and the reformed Republic of China (1928~1949), when the capital was Nanjing].
From a juridical view, the Emperor Yu was the elected emperor of the Xuan Yuan Empire, and should not be counted as an actual emperor of the Xia Empire as most other historians did.
22) Yuan Empire (1271~1368) and its foundation
In 1271, the khan of the Mongol Khanate changed his title to emperor in Chinese [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], and renamed the regime the Yuan Empire, in order to gain Chinese sovereignty.