California sea lions, Zalophus californianus
, have been exploited for centuries along the Pacific coast of the United States and northern Mexico, originally for subsistence and later for commercial purposes.
Food habits of California sea lions Zalophus californianus
at San Clemente Island, California, 1981-1986.
Experimental results demonstrated that entanglement rates of short-beaked common dolphins, Delphinus delphis, and California sea lions, Zalophus californianus
, were significantly reduced in pingered nets (Barlow and Cameron, 2003).
Marine mammals, li ke the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus
, us, function as definitive hosts.
groenlandica (harp seals), Callorhinus ursinus (northern fur seals), Mirounga angustirostris (northern elephant seals), Zalophus californianus
(California sea lions), Eumetopias jubatus (steller sea lions), and Otaria flavescens (South American sea lions) (9-13).
Ecologically, Pacific hake play a dominant and key trophic role in the CCLME both as predator on euphausiids such as Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, shrimp such as Pandahtsjordani, and smaller finfishes such as the Pacific herring, Clupea harengus pallasi, and as prey for other Pacific hake, larger finfishes such as lingcod, Ophidon elongatus, large invertebrates such as Humboldt squid, Dosidicus gigas, seabirds such as the sooty shearwater, Puffinus griseus, and marine mammals such as the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus
californianus (Livingston and Bailey, 1985; Buckley and Livingston, 1997; Baraff and Loughlin, 2000; Field et al.
Food habits of California sea lions, Zalophus californianus
, at San Clemente Island, California, 1981-86.
The program was initiated based on concerns over California sea lion, Zalophus californianus
, bycatch, and was focused around the Channel Islands.
The 4-foot Zalophus californianus
pup was raised in captivity and had come to rely on humans for its food.
In a brief, but highly distinguished career, Rutter not only became a leading authority on Pacific salmon in California and Alaska, but he also helped initiate studies in fish tagging, toxicology, and culture, as well as sea lion, Eumetopias jubata and Zalophus californianus
, predation on commercial fishes.
Variabilidad espacial de la dieta del lobo marino de california Zalophus californianus
californianus, (Lesson 1828).
Milk and energy intakes of suckling California sea lion Zalophus californianus
pups in relation to sex, growth, and predicted maintenance requirements.