Pronunciation Key

ɑ:   as in father ('fɑ:ðə), alms (ɑ:mz), clerk (klɑ:k), heart (hɑ:t), sergeant ('sɑ:dʒənt)
æ   as in act (ækt), Caedmon ('kædmən), plait (plæt)
  as in dive (daɪv), aisle (aɪl), guy (gaɪ), might (maɪt), rye (raɪ)
aɪə   as in fire (faɪə), buyer ('baɪə), liar ('laɪə), tyre ('taɪə)
  as in out (aʊt), bought (baʊ), crowd (kraʊd), slouch (slaʊtʃ)
aʊə   as in flour ('flaʊə), cower ('kaʊə), flower ('flaʊə), sour ('saʊə)
ɛ   as in bet (bɛt), bury ('bɛrɪ), heifer ('hɛfə), said (sɛd), says (sɛz)
  as in paid (peɪd), day (deɪ), deign (deɪn), gauge (geɪdʒ)
ɛə   as in bear (bɛə), dare (dɛə), prayer (prɛə), stairs (stɛəz), where (wɛə)
g   as in get (gɛt), give (gɪv), ghoul (gu:l), guard (gɑ:d), examine (ɪg'zæmɪn)
ɪ   as in pretty ('prɪtɪ), build (bɪld), busy ('bɪzɪ), nymph (nɪmf), pocket ('pɒkɪt), sieve ('sɪv), women ('wɪmɪn)
i:   as in see (si:), aesthete ('i:sθi:t), evil ('i:vəl), magazine (ˌmægə'zi:n), receive (ri'si:v), siege (si:dʒ)
ɪə   as in fear (fɪə), beer (bɪə), mere (mɪə), tier (tɪə)
j   as in yes (jɛs), onion ('ʌnjən), vignette (vɪ'njɛt)
ɒ   as in pot (pɒt), botch (bɒtʃ), sorry ('sɒrɪ)
əʊ   as in note (nəʊt), beau (bəʊ), dough (dəʊ), hoe (həʊ), slow (sləʊ), yeoman ('jəʊmən)
ɔ:   as in thaw (θɔ:), broad (brɔ:d), drawer ('dɔ:ə), fault (fɔ:lt), halt (hɔ:lt), organ ('ɔ:gən)
ɔɪ   as in void (vɔɪd), boy (bɔɪ), destroy (dɪ'strɔɪ)
ʊ   as in pull (pʊl), good (gʊd), should (ʃʊd), woman ('wʊmən)
u:   as in zoo (zu:), do (du:), queue (kju:), shoe (ʃu:), spew (spju:), true (tru:), you (ju:)
ʊə   as in poor (pʊə), skewer (skjʊə), sure (ʃʊə)
ə   as in potter ('pɒtə), alone (ə'ləʊn), furious ('fjʊərɪəs), nation ('neɪʃən), the (ðə)
ɜ:   as in fern (fɜ:n), burn (bɜ:n), fir (fɜ:), learn (lɜ:n), term (tɜ:m)
ʌ   as in cut (cʌt), flood (flʌd), rough (rʌf), son (sʌn)
ʃ   as in ship (ʃɪp), election (ɪ'lɛkʃən), machine (mə'ʃi:n), mission ('mɪʃən), pressure ('prɛʃə), schedule ('ʃɛdju:l), sugar ('ʃʊgə)
ʒ   as in treasure ('trɛʒə), azure ('æʒə), closure ('kləʊʒə), evasion (ɪ'veɪʒən)
  as in chew (tʃu:), nature ('neɪtʃə)
  as in jaw (dʒɔ:), adjective ('ædʒɪktɪv), lodge (lɒdʒ), soldier ('səʊldʒə), usage ('ju:sɪdʒ)
θ   as in thin (θɪn), strenght (strɛŋθ), three (θri:)
ð   as in these (ði:z), bathe (beɪð), lather ('lɑ:ðə)
ŋ   as in sing (sɪn), finger ('fɪngə), sling (slɪn)
ə   indicates that the following consonant(l or n) is syllabic, as in bundle ('bʌndəl), button ('bʌtən)
x   as in Scottish loch (lɒx)
əɪ   as in Scottish aye (əɪ), bile (bəɪl), byke (bəɪk)

Length

The symbol : denotes length and is shown together with certain vowel symbols when the vowels are typically long.

Stress

Three grades of stress are shown in the transcriptions by the presence or absence of marks placed immediately before the afected syllable. Primary or strong stress is shown by ', while secondary or weak stress is shown by ˌ. Unstressed syllables are not marked. In photographic (ˌfəʊtə'græfɪk), for example, the first syllable carries secondary stress and the third primary stress, while the second and fourth are unstressed.
a   ɑ in French ɑmi, German Mɑnn, Italian pɑstɑ: a sound between English (æ) and (ɑ:), similar to the vowel in Northern English cɑt or cut
ɑ   ɑ in French bɑs: a sound made with a tongue position similar to that of English (ɑ:), but shorter
e   é in French été, eh in German sehr, e in Italian che: a sound similar to the first part of the English diphthong (eɪ) in day or to the Scottish vowel in day
i   i in French il, German Idee, Spanish filo, Italian signore: a sound made with a tongue position similar to that of English (i:), but shorter
ɔ   o in Italian no, French bonne, German Sonne: a vowel resembling English (ɒ), but with a higher tongue position and more rounding of the lips
0   o in French rose, German so, Italian voce: a sound between English (ɔ:) and (u:) with closely rounded lips, similar to the Scottish vowel in so
u   ou in French genou, u in German kulant, Spanish puna: a sound made with a tongue position similar to that of English (u:), but shorter
y   u in French tu, ü in German über or fünf: a sound made with a tongue position similar to that of English (i:), but withclosely rounded lips
ø   eu in French deux, ö in German schön: a sound made with a tongue position of (e), but with closely rounded lips withclosely rounded lips
œ   œ in French œuf, ö in German zwölf: a sound made with a tongue position similar to that of English (ɛ), but with open rounded lips
~   above a vowel indicates nasalization, as in French un (œ̃), bon (bɔ̃), vin (vɛ̃), blanc (blɑ̃)
x   ch in Scottish loch, German Buch, j in Spanish Juan
ç   ch in German ich: a sound as in yes, said without voice; similar to the first sound in huge
β   b in Spanish Habana: a voiced fricative sound similar to (v), but made by the two lips
ʎ   ll in Spanish llamar, gl in Italian consiglio: similar to the (lj) squence in million, but with the tongue tip lowered and the sounds said simultaneously
ɥ   u in French lui: a short (y)
ɲ   gn in French vigne, Italian gnocchi, ñ in Spanish España: sikilar to the (nj) sequence in onion, but with the tongue tip lowered and the two sounds said simultaneously
ɣ   g in Spanish luego: a weak (g) made with voiced friction