dekm̥ / Indo-European roots

dekm̥

Ten.

Oldest form *dek̑m̥, becoming *dekm̥ in centum languages.

Derivatives include ten, December, decimate, dean, hundred, century, hecatomb.

I. Basic form *dekm̥.
1. a. ten from Old English tīen, ten; b. Old Norse tjan, ten, in compound āttjān (see oktō(u)). Both a and b from Germanic *tehun.
2. eighteen, fifteen, fourteen, nineteen, seventeen, sixteen, thirteen from Old English suffix -tēne, -tīne, -tȳne, ten, -teen, from Germanic *tehan.
3. deci-, decimal, decimate, decuple, decurion, dicker, dime; December, decemvir, decennary, decennium, decussate, dozen, duodecimal, octodecimo, sextodecimo from Latin decem, ten.
4. denarius, denary, denier2, dinar from irregular Latin distributive dēnī, by tens, ten each (formed by analogy with nōnī, nine each).
5. dean, deca-, decade, doyen; decagon, Decalogue, dodecagon from Greek deka, ten.
II. Germanic *tigu-, ten, decad (of uncertain formation, as though < *deku-), in compound *twēgentig (see dwo-)
III. Ordinal number *dekm̥to-. tenth, tithe from Old English teogotha, tēotha, tenth, from Germanic *teguntha-.
IV. Suffixed zero-grade form *-dkm̥-tā̆, reduced to *-km̥tā̆, and lengthened o-grade form *-dkōm-tā̆, reduced to *-kontā̆.
1. nonagenarian, octogenarian, Septuagint, sexagenary from Latin -gintā, ten times.
2. Pentecost from Greek *-konta, ten times.
V. Suffixed zero-grade form *dkm̥-tom, hundred, reduced to *km̥tom.
1. hundred from Old English hundred, from dialectal North and West Germanic *hund(a)-rada- (-rada-, from Germanic *radam, number; see ar-) , from Germanic *hundam, hundred.
2. Germanic compound *thūs-hundi, "swollen hundred" thousand (see teuə-)
3. cent, cental, centavo, centenarian, centenary, centesimal, centi-, centime, centner, centum, century; centennial, cinquecento, percent, quattrocento, seicento, sen2, seniti, sexcentenary, trecento from Latin centum, hundred.
4. hecatomb, hecto- from Greek hekaton, a hundred (? dissimilated from *hem-katon, one hundred; *hem-, one; see sem-1)
5. satem from Avestan satəm, hundred.

[Pokorny dek̑m̥ 191.]



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