er- / Indo-European roots

Examples of words with the root er-: aardvark, aardwolf, abort, are, art, earnest, earth, hormone, orient, origin, raise, rear, rise.


To move, set in motion.

Oldest form *h1er-.
I. Basic form *er-.
1. Probably Germanic *ar-, *or-, *art(a), to be, exist. are1, art2 from Old English eart and aron, second person singular and plural present of bēon, to be.
2. Perhaps Germanic suffixed form *er-n-os-ti-. earnest1 from Old English eornoste, zealous, serious.
3. Uncertain o-grade suffixed form *ori-yo-. orient, origin, original; abort from Latin orīrī, to arise, appear, be born.
4. Suffixed o-grade form *or-smā-. hormesis, hormone from Greek hormē, impulse, onrush.
II. Enlarged extended form *rei-s-.
1. rise; arise from Old English rīsan, from Germanic *rīsan;
2. Suffixed o-grade (causative) form *rois-ye-. a. rear2 from Old English rǣran, to rear, raise, lift up; b. raise from Old Norse reisa, to raise. Both a and b from Germanic *raizjan.

[Pokorny 3. er- 326; ergh- 339.]


Earth, ground.

Extended form *ert-.
a. earth from Old English eorthe, earth;
b. aardvark, aardwolf from Middle Dutch aerde, eerde, earth. Both a and b from Germanic *erthō.

[Pokorny 4. er- 332.]

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