ghel- / Indo-European roots

ghel-1

To call.

1.
a. yell from Old English gellan, giellan, to sound, shout;
b. yelp from Old English gielpan, to boast, exult;
c. nightingale from Old English galan, to sing. a-c all from Germanic *gel-, *gal-.
2. Reduplicated form *ghi-ghl-. cichlid from Greek kikhlē, thrush, later also the name for a kind of wrasse (a sea fish that has bright colors and jagged waving fins, reminiscent of the plumage of a bird).
3. celandine from Greek khelidwōn, khelidōn, the swallow.

[Pokorny ghel- 428.]


ghel-2

To shine; with derivatives referring to colors, bright materials, gold (probably "yellow metal"), and bile or gall.

Oldest form *g̑hel-, becoming *ghel- in centum languages.

Derivatives include gold, arsenic, melancholy, Hare Krishna, gleam, glimpse, glide.

I. Words denoting colors.
1. Suffixed form *ghel-wo-. yellow from Old English geolu, yellow, from Germanic *gelwaz.
2. Suffixed variant form *ghlō-ro-. chloro-; chlorite1 from Greek khlōros, green, greenish yellow.
3. Suffixed variant form *ghlo-wo-. chloasma from Greek khloos (< *khlo-wo-s), greenish color.
4. O-grade form *ghol-. podzol from Russian zola, ashes (from their color).
5. Suffixed form *ghel-i-. Hare Krishna, Harijan from Sanskrit hari-, tawny yellow.
6. Possibly suffixed zero-grade form *ghl̥-wo- in Latin fulvus, tawny (with dialectal f- as in fel, gall) fulvous; griseofulvin
II. Words denoting gold.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghl̥-to-. a. gold from Old English gold, gold; b. gild1 from Old English gyldan, to gild, from Germanic denominative verb *gulthjan; c. guilder, gulden from Middle Dutch gulden, golden; d. gowan from Middle English gollan, yellow flower, possibly from a source akin to Old Norse gullinn, golden. a-d all from Germanic *gultham, gold.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *ghol-to-. zloty from Polish zl̷oto, gold.
3. Suffixed full-grade form *ghel-no-. arsenic from Syriac zarnīkā, orpiment, from Middle Iranian *zarnīk-, from Old Iranian *zarna-, golden.
III. Words denoting bile.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *ghol-no-. gall1 from Old English gealla, gall, from Germanic *gallōn-, bile.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *ghol-ā-. chole-, choler, cholera; acholia, melancholy from Greek kholē, bile.
3. Suffixed full-grade form *ghel-n-. felon2 from Latin fel, bile.
IV. A range of Germanic words (where no preforms are given, the words are late creations).
1. gleam from Old English glǣm, bright light, gleam, from Germanic *glaimiz.
2. glimpse from Middle English glimsen, to glimpse, from a source akin to Middle High German glimsen, to gleam.
3. glint from Middle English glent, a glint, and glenten, to shine, from a source akin to Swedish dialectal glinta, to shine.
4. glimmer from Middle English glimeren, to glimmer, from a source akin to Swedish glimra, glimmer.
5. glitter from Old Norse glitra, to shine.
6. glitz from Old High German glīzan, to sparkle.
7. glisten from Old English glisnian, to shine.
8. glister from Middle Dutch glinsteren or Middle Low German glisteren, to shine.
9. glass, glaze, glazier from Old English glæs, glass, from Germanic *glasam, glass.
10. glare1 from Middle English glaren, to glitter, stare, from a source akin to Middle Low German glaren, to glisten, from Germanic *glaz-.
11. gloss1 from a source perhaps akin to Icelandic glossi, a spark.
12. glance2 from Old High German glanz, bright.
13. gleg from Old Norse glöggr, clear-sighted.
14. glad1 from Old English glæd, shining, joyful, from Germanic *gladaz.
15. glee; gleeman from Old English glēo, sport, merriment, from Germanic *gleujam.
16. a. gleed from Old English glēd, ember; b. glogg from Old Norse glodh, ember. Both a and b from Germanic *glō-di-.
17. a. glow from Old English glōwan, to glow; b. glow from Old High German gluoen, to glow; c. glower from Middle English gloren, to gleam, stare, probably from a source akin to Norwegian dialectal glora, to gleam, stare; d. gloat from a source perhaps akin to Old Norse glotta, to smile (scornfully). a-d all from Germanic *glō-.
18. gloaming from Old English glōm, twilight, from Germanic *glō-m-.
19. Possibly distantly related to this root is Germanic *glīdan, to glide. a. glide from Old English glīdan, to slip, glide; b. glissade from Old French glier, to glide; c. glitch from Old High German glītan, to glide; d. glede from Old English glida, kite (< "gliding, hovering bird"), from derivative Germanic *glidōn-.
20. glib from a source possibly akin to Middle Low German glibberich, slippery.

[Pokorny 1. g̑hel- 429.]



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