melə- / Indo-European roots


To crush, grind; with derivatives referring to various ground or crumbling substances (such as flour) and to instruments for grinding or crushing (such as millstones).

Oldest form *melh2-.
1. O-grade form *mol-. maelstrom from Middle Dutch malen, to whirl, from Germanic *mal-.
2. Full-grade form *mel-. meal1 from Old English melu, flour, meal, from Germanic suffixed form *mel-wa-.
3. Zero-grade form *ml̥-. mold3, molder from Old English molde, soil, from Germanic suffixed form *mul-dō.
4. Full-grade form *mel-.
a. meunière, mill1, mola2, molar2, mole4, moulin; emolument, immolate, ormolu from Latin molere, to grind (grain), and its derivative mola, a millstone, mill, coarse meal customarily sprinkled on sacrificial animals;
b. possible suffixed form *mel-iyo-. mealie, miliary, milium, millet; gromwell from Latin milium, millet.
5. Suffixed variant form *mal-ni-. malleable, malleolus, mallet, malleus, maul; pall-mall from Latin malleus, hammer, mallet.
6. Zero-grade form *ml̥-. amylum, mylonite from Greek mulē, mulos, millstone, mill.
7. Possibly extended form *mlī-. blini, blintz from Old Russian blinŭ, pancake.

[Pokorny 1. mel- 716.]

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